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Lecture

WK5.doc

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC364H1
Professor
Brent Berry

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1
WK 5
Limitations of epidemiology
1. Biophysiologic reductionism
2. Absorption by biomedicine
3. Lack of theory development
4. Limitations of dichotomous thinking
5. Risk factorology
6. Association versus causality
7. Dogmatism by design
Two view
Medical versus holistic approach
Medical science
Focuses on disease states and on factors that predispose people to,
are associated with, or increase the chance of entering into a disease
state.
Dichotomous approach
Healthy | diseased
Holistic view
Focuses on health as the degree to which an individual is capable of
achieving an existential equilibrium.
Not static, but fluid
Healthy-->unhealthy
Complex causes and methods
Prostate cancer determinants
Male aging study
36 risk factors for prostate cancer
After decades of risks medical research, only know 18% of the risk factors
Methodological approaches
Multilevel model
Statistical approaches
Multi-disciplinary approaches
Just as every epoch has its own health challenges, so too must each epoch dev
elop research methods appropriate to its problems
Mixed methods
Ethnographic work
Qualitative interview
Historical comparative research

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Description
WK 5 1 Limitations of epidemiology 1. Biophysiologic reductionism 2. Absorption by biomedicine 3. Lack of theory development 4. Limitations of dichotomous thinking 5. Risk factorology 6. Association versus causality 7. Dogmatism by design Two view Medical versus holistic approach  Medical science  Focuses on disease states and on factors that predispose people to, are associated with, or increase the chance of entering into a disease state.  Dichotomous approach  Healthy | diseased  Holistic view  Focuses on health as the degree to which an individual is capable of achieving an existential equilibrium.  Not static, but fluid  Healthy-->unhealthy Complex causes and methods Prostate cancer determinants  Male aging study  36 risk factors for prostate cancer  After decades of risks medical research, only know 18% of the risk factors Methodological approaches  Multilevel model  Statistical approaches  Multi-disciplinary approaches  Just as every epoch has its own health challenges, so too must each epoch dev elop research methods appropriate to its problems”  Mixed methods  Ethnographic work  Qualitative interview  Historical comparative research WK 5 2  Systematic social observation Research of Neighborhood effect Traditionally, a focus on structural disadvantage  Aggregate SES, female- headed households , youth high school dropouts, male unemployment, aggregate disorder.  Hot spots with concentration of disadvantage Neighborhood fact to data  Social inequality prevalent across neighbourhoods and growing poverty  Concentrated disadvantage does matter (segregation, low income, lone parents, disorder)  Most focus on traditional American city, using block faces or census tracts. Important findings and neighbourhood mechanisms  Social ties and interactions  Social capital, networks, strong ties, real and perceived social support  Can potentially buffer negative effects of disadvantage  benefits of social
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