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SOC101Y1 Lecture Notes - Sub-Saharan Africa, Neoliberalism, Westernization

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Sheldon Ungar

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Chapter 9: Inequality Among Nations: Perspective on Development
x Globalization, world integration, investment, production, economic policies, has
decreased working conditions around the world
x Transnational Corporations: companies with subsidies in more than one country;
privately owned and mostly controlled by investors in rich countries
x Neoliberal Economic Policies: in exchange for loans and financial aid, such
policies require that countries: dismantle laws against foreign ownership, privatize
care, education, reduce corp. taxes, decrease currency to encourage exports
Why Are Some Countries Rich and Others Poor?
x Neoliberal- dominant in western countries
o Most countries are poor because western capitalist institutions and values
have not penetrated them deeply enough
o Poor countries remain poor because of ignorance, laziness, corrupt elites
x Anti-Imperialist-
o Rich countries are rich because they exploit poor countries
o Rich countries and dominant corporations have an interest, in keeping
poor countries underdeveloped so they will remain sources of cheap
labour and resources
Unequal Development and Unequal Benefits
x GNP: the value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year as
measured officially by money transfers
x Economic growth can coexist with widespread poverty, exploitation, long
working hours, pollution, poor education etc
x National average hides poverty by lumping together income of rich and poor
x Human Development
o Improving per capita income, education, health, environmental quality,
democracy, equality, freedom
o Human Development Index- created by UN
x Shows that poverty in E Asia has been cut dramatically in recent
decades, but poverty is rising dramatically in S Asia, Sub-Saharan
Africa, parts of E Europe
x Class and Inequality
o The gap between rich and poor is generally greater in poor countries than
in rich countries
o But a big class difference exists almost everywhere
x Women and Development
especially in less developed countries
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