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Chapter 9-Inequality Among Nations Perspectives on Development notes Jan 14

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University of Toronto St. George
Sheldon Ungar

Reading Notes 01-14-09 Chapter 9: Inequality Among Nations: Perspective on Development Introduction N Globalization, world integration, investment, production, economic policies, has decreased working conditions around the world N Transnational Corporations : companies with subsidies in more than one country; privately owned and mostly controlled by investors in rich countries N Neoliberal Economic Policies: in exchange for loans and financial aid, such policies require that countries: dismantle laws against foreign ownership, privatize 5:-OL.0390757L80870:.0J4;970J:O,9L438.:95:-OL.0[503L9:70843K0,O9K care, education, reduce corp. taxes, decrease currency to encourage exports Why Are Some Countries Rich and Others Poor? N Neoliberal- dominant in western countries o Most countries are poor because western capitalist institutions and values have not penetrated them deeply enough o !447.4:397L08.,3-099079K0280O;08--0.42L3JOLN0:8 o Poor countries remain poor because of ignorance, laziness, corrupt elites N Anti-Imperialist- o Rich countries are rich because they exploit poor countries o Rich countries and dominant corporations have an interest, in keeping poor countries underdeveloped so they will remain sources of cheap labour and resources Unequal Development and Unequal Benefits N GNP: the value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year as measured officially by money transfers N Economic growth can coexist with widespread poverty, exploitation, long working hours, pollution, poor education etc N National average hides poverty by lumping together income of rich and poor N Human Development o Improving per capita income, education, health, environmental quality, democracy, equality, freedom o Human Development Index- created by UN N Shows that poverty in E Asia has been cut dramatically in recent decades, but poverty is rising dramatically in S Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of E Europe N Class and Inequality o The gap between rich and poor is generally greater in poor countries than in rich countries o But a big class difference exists almost everywhere N Women and Development o *030757414:3O,110.98,5078438OL10.K,3.080;07ZK070,3 especially in less developed countries
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