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Chapter 14-Crime and Deviance notes Jan 28

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University of Toronto St. George
Sheldon Ungar

January 28 , 2009 Chapter 14: Crime and Deviance Introduction N How definitions and perceptions of deviance change over time and how disagreements often arise over those definitions N Rules change and people often disagree with the rules N How people react to deviance tells us about how society is organized; power, privilege, resource distribution, social order Deviance and Crime As Outcomes of Social Control N Nonconformity becomes deviance when it produces a negative social reaction, N Informal Social Control: occurs through interactions among individuals and includes expressions of disapproval, avoidance N Formal Social Control: practiced by state; through official organizations, agents, criminal justice system- relies largely on external control N Durkheim o Deviance performs positive function in society o Rule breaking by groups members= increases social solidarityintegration o Serious violence of a groups rules typically bring people together in collective expressions of outrage and loss- reminding them of their common values confronting deviance- group highlights its standards of right and wrong to its members o Societies need deviance- to allow them to adapt to the changing world o Can also lead to chaos, conflict, instability N Deviance is created through social control N Crime is a special case of deviance- defined by social norms that are formalized in criminal law N Conflict Theorists: analyze the relationship among o Power struggles over defining deviance o Organization of social control o People defined as deviant The Social Construction of Deviance and Its Consequences N Moral Crusades: initiated by individuals or grassroots organizations acting as moral crusaders or claims makers o Push for creation of deviance definitions by making claims that certain behavioursconditions violate fundamental moral standards- require formal recognition as wrong o Ex: MADD- educate public about costs of drinking, secondhand smoke, o Success of moral crusade depends on the extent to which claims makers can enlist the support of groups with substantial politicaleconomic power N Status Conflict and the Social Construction of Deviance o Conflict at roots of deviance o Marxist Theorists: conflict between classes, capitalist control o Status Conflict Perspective Weber, Vold, Turk, Quinney Various socialecopolethrel, compete for control over definitions of rightwrong- devianceconformity Winning groups can advance their interests over losing groups- gaining greater access to power, resources, authority WG- legitimate their moral authority, determine types of social controls applied to deviance
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