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Chapter 15 Population and Urbanization Notes Feb 4 2009

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University of Toronto St. George
Sheldon Ungar

February 4 , 2009 Chapter 15: Population and Urbanization Introduction N Environmental-Opportunity Theory: people actively choose where they want to live depending on the extent to which a particular place either meshes with or constrains their personal lifestyle N Demography: the study of populations (size, distribution, composition Early Cities N Cities: relatively large, dense, permanent settlements in which the majority of the residents do not produce their own food N Cities date back-5-6K years BCE (Mesotopia) N 3 key elements- Preindustrial cities- food surplus, literacy, technology innovations N Cities were important for commerce, knowledge, art N Small fraction of overall populations N Could not support large enough populations with food supplies N When pop did increase= diseases killed many Population Issues and Urban Growth N The Demographic Transition o Absence of birth control in Preindustrial cities= many children (high infant mortality rates) o Children= labour in poor families o Short life span th o 18 century= breakthroughs: hygiene, nutrition, health, medical knowledge o Lower death rates-> still high BR o Eventually BR begin to fall o Children now required to be in school o Demographic Transition: change from to low birth rates and death rates that characterized modernization, industrialization, urbanization o Replacement Level: number of children that each women must have on average to sustain the size of a population, ignoring iemigration- (RL= 2.1 children) o DT= most prevalent in EuroNA first o Malthus vs. Marx N Malthus N Population if left unchecked would increase geometrically (2, 4, 8, 16) and food supply would increase arithmetically (2, 4, 6, 8) N Population would outgrow food supply N =Widespread hunger, poverty etc N Marx N Capitalism is organized to keep the working class in a personal in a perpetual state of povertyunemployment N #0807;0,7241O,-4:7 N Rapid population growth, then, was less a result of a mismatch between population and resources and more case of deeply flawed social and economic arrangements N Erlich N Unchecked consumption habits= catastrophic The Industrial City th N End of 18 century= EuroNA-,3:897L,OL9 N Larger, more complex, dynamic
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