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Chapter 15 Population and Urbanization Notes Feb 4 2009

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Sheldon Ungar

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February 4th, 2009
Chapter 15: Population and Urbanization
x Environmental-Opportunity Theory: people actively choose where they want to live
depending on the extent to which a particular place either meshes with or constrains
their personal lifestyle
x Demography: the study of populations (size, distribution, composition
Early Cities
x Cities: relatively large, dense, permanent settlements in which the majority of the
residents do not produce their own food
x Cities date back-5-6K years BCE (Mesotopia)
x 3 key elements- Preindustrial cities- food surplus, literacy, technology innovations
x Cities were important for commerce, knowledge, art
x Small fraction of overall populations
x Could not support large enough populations with food supplies
x When pop did increase= diseases killed many
Population Issues and Urban Growth
x The Demographic Transition
o Absence of birth control in Preindustrial cities= many children (high infant
mortality rates)
o Children= labour in poor families
o Short life span
o 18th century= breakthroughs: hygiene, nutrition, health, medical knowledge
o Lower death rates-> still high BR
o Eventually BR begin to fall
o Children now required to be in school
o Demographic Transition: change from to low birth rates and death rates that
characterized modernization, industrialization, urbanization
o Replacement Level: number of children that each women must have on average
to sustain the size of a population, ignoring i/emigration- (RL= 2.1 children)
o DT= most prevalent in Euro/NA first
o Malthus vs. Marx
x Malthus
x Population if left unchecked would increase geometrically (2, 4,
8, 16) and food supply would increase arithmetically (2, 4, 6, 8)
x Population would outgrow food supply
x =Widespread hunger, poverty etc
x Marx
x Capitalism is organized to keep the working class in a personal in
a perpetual state of poverty/unemployment
x Rapid population growth, then, was less a result of a mismatch
between population and resources and more case of deeply
flawed social and economic arrangements
x Erlich
x Unchecked consumption habits= catastrophic
The Industrial City
x End of 18th century= Euro/NA-!³,QGXVWULDO&LW\´
x Larger, more complex, dynamic
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x Advancements in transportation, agricultural tech/activity, commerce
x Factories
x Development of an Urban-Industrial Economy in Canada
o Industrial cities began to emerge (early 20th century)
o Factories Toronto, Montreal, Windsor, Hamilton
o Branch banking system
o Transcontinental railroad
o National economic markets established
o Deindustrialization of maritime provinces
o Immigration-> Toronto, Vancouver
x Researching the Industrial City: The Chicago School
o US cities increasing in pop esp. Chicago (late 19th century)
o Such rapid growth= dislocation, human misery
o Park
x Contrast between rural and urban life
o Tonnies
x Decline as a loss of all that is natural and satisfying about small town life
x Lifestyle based on money, commercial contracts, individual interest
o Simmel
x Central method of dealing with the meaning of the shift to an urban
o Thomas & Znaneiecki
x City is responsible for destroying the traditional institutions of Polish
peasant life
o Wirth
x City is characterized by the concurrent trends of increasing size, density,
x Urbanism: way of life that involves increased tolerance but also
emotional withdrawal and specialized, impersonal, and self interested
x Ecology of the Industrial City
o Burgess
x Concentric-Zone Model: expansion of cities is visualized as a successive
series of concentric rings, each of which contains a distinct resident
population and type of land use
x Zone 1: business district
x Zone 2: transition (cheap housing)
x Zone 3: working class homes
x Zone 4: better residences (bulk of middle class situated)
x Zone 5: commuter zone
x Burgess CZM- assumptions: commercial growth dominant in city nucleus
and proceeds outwards, resident growth= periphery, as housing aged it
became less desirable-> abandoned, immigrants: would want to upgrade
x CZM fit Chicago well but not for understanding all places
o Harris & Ullman (Los Angeles)
x Multiple Nuclei Model: urban growth was located in a series centres
(retail, wholesale, residential)
o Hoyt
x Sector Model: cities grew not in concentric circles but in sectors or
wedges along major transportation arteries
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