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Lecture 9

SOC220 Lecture 9

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101Y1
Professor
M.Young
Semester
Fall

Description
SOC220 Lecture 9 11/21/2012 Mediating Inequality 1. What does it mean to mediate inequality? - Figuring out the balance, balance and checks - Fairness, leveling the playing field - Decisions making on what aspects of inequality we want to deal with over the other - Maintaining a social conversation of difference groups 2. How would you go about doing it? - Policy implications (government), through adjusting tax policies - Public awareness, advertising - Unionization, collective interests building social solidarity (rich and poor) - (Re)distribution of public resources Mediating inequality - What is the welfare state? - What types of welfare state are there? - What are the real effects of the welfare state on inequality levels? Video: - Not anti-capital - Contextualize mediating inequality, how inequality is now and how it is different among the word (income inequality) - Income of top earners are growing - Gini co-efficient, tool to measure income inequality - 1990s, increase in extremely high incomes, USA, Canada, Ireland, Finland - OECD, the rise of inequality can be helped through more jobs and good wages - The richest 1% of Canadians saw their share of total income increase form 8.1% in 1980 to 13.3% in 2007 - Total income of the richest 0.1% more than doubled, form 2% to 5.3% - At the same time, the top federal marginal income tax rates saw a marked declined: dropping from 43% in 1981 to 29% in 2010 - Gini-coefficient, range 0-1 o 1 = high inequality o 0 = no inequality - Comparing different groups in social (Ratio measuring tool) o Highest 10% vs. the rest (90%) What is the welfare state? - The function of the state as it pertains to providing services for its citizens o Examples: health, security, education, etc - “The degree to which individuals, or families, can uphold a socially acceptable standard of living independently of market participation” (1990) o “Socially acceptable standard”: means that it is relative, collectively decided o “Independent of market participation”: welfare state as regulating the effects of market, the market is not perfect, does not economic resources at a socially optimal level - How to measure the welfare state? o Total spending’s: How much the government spends on its citizens o How money is spent (Allocation of spending) o Coverage of social programs provided for citizens o Eligibility: Who qualifies to use these services Chart on the website: - There are different ways for providing these services on behalf of states for its citizens - Great variations of the distribution of income - When governments spend less money, we tend to see a positive correlation with inequality (inequality goes down when we spend more money) What types of welfare state are there? - Esping-Anderson (1990): 3 kinds 1. Liberal/market (Market) 2. Christian democratic (Family) 3. Social democratic (State) - How is welfare assigned to: state, market and family? - The type of welfare state is determined by: o Decommodification: the extent to which such services are provided independent of the market  Access to benefits: eligibility rules  Levels of income replacement  Range of entitlements Liberal - Market model o The conception of the individual as a single entity o A market participant o Seek benefits through market programs  E
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