SOC383H1: Lecture 2: Women in Flight September 20
For Lecture 2 and 3 (September 27) we will address the following questions
1- Who is a refugee?
2- What do we know about refugees? How do we know?
3- What causes refugee flows?
4- Responses: refugee camps
5- What happens to women?
6- Resettlement in Canada
What motivates women to migrate,move?
How do they get into Canada?
How is their life in Canada after getting in?
1. What is the definition of a refugee? See Boyd reading.
Voluntary migration v.s. involuntary migration=usually refer to trafficking
Voluntary as individual has deliberate decision making when migrating
Displaced ppl: ppl who are fleeing due to natural disasters or mostly the
warfare, genocide... The displacement usually refer to ppl
who cannot return to original country.
Internally displaced:ppl who have fled their homes but remain within the
border of their countries
1.Who is refugee?
According to the UN 1951 convention:
A refugee is a person who…
"... owing to well founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race,
religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political
opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable, or owing to
such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country ....”
Reflects an incompatibility btw the applicant and their country of
143 countries have signed
“Refugee” can have broad meaning
a) UN 1951 convention
b) those in “refugee like” conditions
c) IDP - internally displaced ppl, ppl on move internally d) Refugee claimant/asylum seeker, somebody arriving the
countrys border or inside the country, seeking shelter seeks
formal recognition of their status and claim to be refugee,
What constitutes protection? What constitutes persecution?
PROTECTION: Governments are responsible for enforcing a country's laws.
May be unable or unwilling to do so, often during a conflict or civil unrest
„Unwilling‟- when civil war based on ethnicity, govt try to prosecute not
state dominated ethics, e.g. Roma's like jepys originate form
India, move to east eu then spread in eu, being prosecuted and
subject of selection attention, being object of persecution in
Each case handled individually coz not all romas are being prosecuted and
some being middle class. So donot classify a group of pop as refugee but
handle each refugee claimer individually ESP the primary claimer
PERSECUTION: What constitutes persecution is debated
a) state-sponsored & focused on individuals, e.g one
religion country prosecute citizens with other religious
b) widespread social practices & attitudes may also be
grounds for persecution ; failure to conform what's
socially accepted behaviors e.g. Homosexuals in some
country that recognize heterosexual as norm; women
refuse to dress in certain way,or not being submissive so
at risk of being persecuted
Gender-based prosecution: refers to form of harm that are regularly
experienced by females and are directly at them b/c of their sex
UNHCR= UN high commissioner for refugee
2. What do we know about refugees?
Population of concern for UNHCR
35 million % in 2011
Refugees 29.4 (17.1 UNHCR)
Asylum seekers 2.5
IDPs (protected) 43.7
Returned IDPs 9.2 Returned refugees 1.5
Where are they concentrated? Is the size big or small? Explain? What is
the representation of women among this population? Why?
Half are women because the source of refugees are countries of unrest like
Under civil war,hence, men are either in the army or recruited fig