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Lecture 6

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Monica Boyd

What causes women to internationally migrate? Conditions in the home country matter – government debt and SAPs in the 1980s are factors To pay off debt, countries can export goods and export workers. Major labor export countries are Bangladesh; Thailand; S. Korea; Indonesia; Philippines Lecture 6: Recruiting women as migrant workers Case study: the Philippines Women refugee, Even they know they are going into prostitution, no idea what the condition gonna be like, hoping for a Cinderella story But women also work in other sectors Some Philippines entered in Canada as temporary work do transit into permanent residence after series of paper work and background check, ESP criminal record Outline: Review conditions in the origin 1. home country that create incentives for migration in general and for the migration of women 2. Discuss conditions in receiving countries that stimulate the demand for migrant labor and female labor in particular 3. Focus on the Philippines as the example of a “labor brokerage state” 4. Info on parameters of migration from the Philippines 5. Women working overseas are “modern heroes” but also modern slaves Philippines state encourage labor migration, women seen as modern hero Govt debt and SAPs  IMF and world bank provided loans to developing countries. Loans given to these countries if they implemented SAP  Many of these LEDCs have a particular leader-strong man and dictators, temptation of leaving the country arise as these leaders seen state property as personal property.  traditionally, With many aids given to country, goes into hands of elite- corruption e.g. Haiti in 1980s and Cuban cases... and So SAP developed Why are women on move? Sassen: conditions of SAP lead to : • Decline male employment in traditional industry • Declines in the traditional profit making enterprises • Fall In govt revenue related to debt payoff Alternative survival strategies put into places, these includes feminization of survival (sex slaves) • Female labors into labor market, maynot work 9-5, may be street workers… • Migration of men- 95%of ships crews are Philippines and mostly guys, women are gender stereotyped into housework -jobs like cleaning, caretaker • (New?) migration of women , traditional men migrate and make a livelihood and send back to home country, women follows, reunions, male, as head of house, seen as the main labor force , but now women as a significant share of the labor • For work/income What determines if migration occurs? Motives of women (individual family, micro and meso level )-individual women have motives to assist family financially, meso-level family decision making , families discuss and strategize over who to migrate and earn the living for family, gender stereotype as women as more beautiful, less likely to drink and indulge, sometimes as family say 'we want send our daughter who we sure would sent back the money, not so sure about the sons ' Motives of govt of sending country(have to pay off loans)-usually loans given in US dollar and has to pay back in US dollar, but you pay more to get currency but get less selling it. If Philippines depend to domestic earning denominated in pesos to pay off loan, you have to lose a portion of wealth in buying the US dollar but if women sent back the remittances in US dollar, they don't to to do exchanges and saves the cost incurred by exchange Reciving country- what purpose do migrants serve? Answer requires thinking about the transformation of work in destination countries and increasing wealth, ppl arguing that remittances are consumed for personal expenses but these individual consumption still help to stimulate the local economic activity Destination countries- demand for women migrants stems from: • Aging pop (caregiving)-in 20yrs, 1/4Canadian pop would be over 65+, retirement come in and ppl ages need for caretaking, increasing demand on caring system, in medical system, many diagnostics, lots of ppl giving forms of care • Women in the LF(household labor and caregiving), female in labor force, focus on career, insufficent time in past,before70s, men offered to family wage and women as taking over the jobs of men, don't get paid as much and expected to resign. Inadequacy of labor in late 1960s for growing economy, so recruits of less desirable labor -women, so who substitute for women in household when they enter in labor force getting a higher payment, what to pay less for caretaking, also is stereotyped, caretaking seen as instinct for women, not skill ; worth less pay • Increasing wealth -'servants' signifies status, reflect wealth of you, not only luxury commodities but also having servants. Prevalent in South Asia and other LEDC wealthy families Result-caretaker is in the family but not part of the family. The dilemma that women come and give caretaking often giving her own kids behind, often has to hire someone to do that work- increasing marginalization, wealthy pay little to hire women who again pay locals to take care- more marginalized Trends: Numbers of countries of employment is growing Number of sending countries is increasing, growing govt involvement in sending country e.g. Tomato picking in Canada, generally men, gender stereotyped Philippine is a good example Population:101,833,938 Annual pop growth :1.7%- Doubling every 40 yrs VS Canada growth is 0.78%-doubling every 88yrs; large family encouraged in pillipine LEDC seeking to have an opportunity to earn their livelihood, not so many opportunity is available, STOCK Total Immigrants 435,423 Total Emigrants 4,275,200 Remittances (2007) 16.2 billion US dollars, nearly 12% ofGNP (equal the manufacturing contributes in Canada, canadian value is no longer in manufacturing, but services) Ppl living oversea as migrates are working age- high fertility age Asia- also include the Arab states, east Asia regions, Annual departure of Philippines are growing up, the institution Feminization of migrate workers Increasingly , most are promenade In 2002,73%of legal workers from Philip are women ; 76% from Indonesia are women Gendered migration in MiddleEast initially in 70s and 80s to gulf counties are mainly men, mainly for constructions(Kuwait, Oman, quatar, emirates), lots of wealth and Slowdown in oil production plus increasing wealth generated demand for females to work as medical personal and caretaking Gendered migration in Asia Philippines in marjority since92 In past 39 yrs most female migrant of Asia come from 3countries: Philippines, Indonesia and Sri Lanka, also from Thailand, Myanmar but illegal; hongkong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia are major destinations Why the trends for growing female migration from select Asian countries Factors: • Growing population • No sustained economic development (no growth in jobs) 2digit pop growth means too much unemployment - 1/4unemployment • Political instability • Double digit unemployment • Emergence of culture of migration, start to expect u would migrate, my family left, possibility I would go as well Commodification of ppl, worker for export -can be deliberate Culture of migration emerges over time 2005, 1/4- 1/3 Philippines said they would like to work migrate 47% children say they would like to work oversea someday • Low wages Getting women to migrate ( more organization facilitate women to migrate)  Origin govt agencies-state supported training programs  Origin govt approved recruitment agencies, state approves, recruitment agency often involved in 2stages, paid money in Philippine agency to acquire info and have paper works done, to go out and again pay canadian agency to match the workers to the jobs  Illegal recruiters in origin countries, can also be source of exploitation, Philippines has become successful as an exporter that it fails to develop and  strengthen developments, becoming rely on its migrated workers for the countries development  Invest in training that is useful aboard(nurses , entertainers etc.)  Migrated workers as Modern heros Phillipine labeled as “labor brokerage state”; A “labor brokerage state” is one which actively prepares, mobilizes, and regulates its citizens for migrant work abroad. State functions to offer you as a worker to other country and make sure the skill you have matches the demand of other country Example: Filipino men and women fill a range of jobs around the globe, including domestic work, construction, and engineering, and they have even worked in the Middle East to support U.S. military operations. The state actively trains, arranges visas and "exports" these workers in select occupations. At the same time, the state redefines nationalism to normalize its citizens to migration while fostering their ties to the Philippines. Those who leave the country to work and send their wages to their families at home are treated as new national heroes. Tell them to be proud of your work, we are proud of you going out to work. Modern heros or slaves? Modern heroes and also modern slaves?  Can be trafficked for labors - child workers, young worker...exit not always state sponsored or legal  Can work in slave like condition Issues of domestic work overseas 1. Racialized selection of workers – example Filipinas vs Indonesian women 2. Domestic workers – hidden in the household 3. Asymmetries of power b/w employers and employee, 4. Rights in country of destination 5. Capacity of origin country to protect Protection for migrated workers by origin country is often weak B/c: • Labor rights based on criminal laws of destination country override the sending country • Temporary bans mean illegal migration • Bilateral agreements -lack monitoring, also inequities btw two countries Saudi Arabia executed Indonesian migrates who killed long abusive host, Indonesia protest, say no more workers to Saudi, but not much Indonesian govt can do bc they are weak. Lecture 7 - Recruiting women as domestic worker Outline: 1. Review 20th century 2. Current situation Gender stratification and racial stratification, women bear the imprint of their gender scripts and sex typing of occupation, occupations are changing, as pharmaceutical is partially feminized and sociology is almost completely feminized, Women who move to destination country and their job would almost reflect the job gendered feature. Ppl seen suitable for job due to racial and gender reason. Usually migrated women hired
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