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Social Interaction

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

SOC101 (Lecture #3) Sept. 29 , 2010 Social Interaction Social interaction strongly influenced by our emotional state – act differently depending on the way in which we feel Speakers laugh 50% more then the listener, women tend to laugh twice as often as men do (gender distribution of laughter fits a general pattern; a status) Status: is a recognized position in a social interaction In every interaction we have status hierarchies; in social situations, laughter is typically unevenly distributed Social structure underlying laughter, often a symbol of dominance or subservience in a relationship People in privileged positions often direct their laughter towards those who are lower in hierarchy (socially marginal, powerless groups; reinforce social hierarchy) Many jokes enable us to reinforce social hierarchies, they influence who laughs, who gets laughed at, & what the consequences are In the case of laughter and common cold – often believe that these external disturbances that cause a reaction are experienced involuntarily (they just happen to us) We can, and often do, control our emotions External stimulus –> physiological response & initial emotion –> cultural script (what were supposed to do) –> modified emotional response (not just an involuntarily reaction, modified by what is learned) Emotion management – how people manage their emotions, involves people obeying certain behaviour rules; the way that they should respond (we share conventional expectations about what we should feel, how we should feel it, how long, who we should feel with) Different categories of the population have different feeling rules Women, middle-class, Protestants cultivate their feelings, men more likely to express emotion Emotional Management: Involves people obeying “feeling rules” & responding appropriately to the situations in which they find themselves. Emotion Labour: is emotion management that one does as part of one’s job & for which one is paid. All jobs require some amount of emotional labour; those that require much -allow the employee through training to exercise control over their emotions Emotional labour is increasingly important on the job, more and more people have been selected and hired for their skill in emotion labour Emotion labour becomes a commodity, the way workers express their feelings are governed by the places in which they work Emotion labour decreases people’s ability to express emotion involuntarily and genuinely People’s emotions have changed over the course of history, the way we experience certain things is not the way in which our ancestors did Crude death rate: annual # of deaths per 1000 people in a population. Rate: the frequency with which an event occurs in a given time span per population unit. For ex. People invested less emotionally in their children during the Middle ages, people were less distraught over the loss of a child; as health conditions improved and the rate of death amongst infants declined, emotional investment in children increased & the period of mourning increased (due to the fact that the crude death rate & infant morality rates have decreased) Calculating a rate: (TEST) Population A Population B N= number of people in a population at a given time. M = number of marriages in the population over a given period. The marriage rate = (N/M) * 1,000. That is, you divide the frequency of an event (how often it occurs in a given time span, such as a year) by the size of the population and multiply by 1,000 to find the rate of the event per 1,000 people. Multiply by 100 to find the rate per 10,000 people. N- # of people in the population (4782) M - # of marriages that take place in a year (12) How to compare populations? The # of marriages in population A are put over the population size Pop. A: (12/4782 = .0025094) .0025094 x 1000 = 2.5 Pop. B: (3/613 = .0048939) .0048939 x 1000 = 4.8 *Higher Education, Top 12 Countries (How would you calculate the rate of top universities in each country?) What was acceptable in the Middle Ages amongst higher societies, is
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