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SOC101Y1 Lecture Notes - International Inequality, Gross National Income, Sub-Saharan Africa

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Robert Brym

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Jan. 26/2011
Global Inequality
Gross National Income Per Capita by Child Mortality Rate, 2006
Higher income = lower child mortality rate
Relationship between Income & Life Expectancy Film
In 1810: life expectancy below 40, UK still a bit better
Industrial Revolution makes western countries move up
1948 WW2 ends, imperial powers begin to decolonize
Asian countries start to catch up in 1980s, African countries caught up in civil
war, AIDS
Huge inequality between countries at the top & those at the bottom, & within
World is converging, possible for all countries to catch up
Once colonies became independent they made enormous progress
Most countries in the world are improving; some are not (sub-Saharan Africa)
When we think about global inequalities, we need to look at differences between
the classes of people poor countries lack substantial middle classes
Gap between rich & poor is greater in poor countries than in rich
Cost of ending world poverty is low & increasing life expectancy in poor countries
Two sociological theories that seek to explain global inequality:
#1 Modernization Theory
Global inequality results from various inadequacies in the poor countries
Poor because they lack capital for investment in industry
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