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SOC207 Lecture 4

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SOC207 Lecture 4 Women’s Employment: Sex Segregation and Barriers to Moving Up Sex, Gender, and Gender Differentiation - Sex o Biological differences o Based on chromosomal differences, hormonal differences o physical appearance - Gender o Socially constructed attributes that we superimpose on sex—refers to masculinity and femininity o Social processes and interaction - Gender Differentiation Process: o Notice difference (beliefs that we attach to it) o Rank based on difference  Ie, caring for young children, seen as a nature characteristic of women, thus pay/status is lower) o Behave based on rank (discrimination) Causal Process Gender Biological Discrimination Sex Gender (Behaviour) Gender Difference Differentiation Inequality Gender (Outcome) Bias (Attitude) Work and Gender Research Questions: - What are the kinds of gender inequality in the workplace (i.e., effects of bias and discrimination)? - What are the causes? - What can be done about it? (Remedies) - Why are those remedies often resisted? - What can be done about overcoming the resistance to remedies for gender inequality? - Employers: o Assumptions, stereotypes affect hiring/promotion - Employees: o Exclusionary practices - The differential outcome matters as well* Labour Market Sex Segregation (the actual job that women can get) - Levels: o Industries, occupations, jobs o Industries: Mining, fishing (men), services and sales (women) o Occupations: different establishments, core markets(men), peripheral work(women), full-time/benefits (men), part-time/contract (women) o Jobs: same job title … different work for men and women - Horizontal Sex Segregation  Men and women doing different work (with the possibility of equal value)  measures the gender dominance of different occupations  the notion of skills is gendered - Vertical Sex Segregation  Men and women doing different work (even in the same broad occupation)  But men’s work is more skilled, more valued, and better paid  Access to authority (the likelihood of women being promoted to men) & Exercising ‘real’ authority (different titles, the control over people and money (hiring and firing)) Frameworks 1. Supply side a. Employee characteristics and preference 2. Demand side a. Employer preferences and practices 3. Organization Structure/Processes a. Hierarchy, policies, job descriptions b. Employee interaction (what is going on between managers and female employees and groups of employees as well) Supply Side Explanations - Human Capital Theory o Women invest less in human capital projecting to take time out of it  Linked to women’s role in the domestic sphere (unpaid work) o Women’s career interruptions o Women are in certain types of jobs because they have the skills that qualify o Chose jobs that are flexible o Devaluation of womens human capital o Immigration women > o Critique: ignores inequality at home; devaluation of women’s HC - Biological Model o Biological differences between genders lead to different preferences o Critique: Unidirectional, essentialist o Fixed - Sex Role Socialization o Passing of cultural beliefs and values and norms about work affect women’s & men’s career aspirations to children o Institutionalized (school, media, peers, religi
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