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SOC207 Lecture 2

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JAN, 14 , 2013 SOC207 Lecture 2 Globalization and the Changing World of Work: For Fordism to Flexibility Agenda: - Fordism - Crisis of Fordism - The Post industrial Society - Globalization - Industrial restructuring - Sector/orccupation changes - Post-fordism - The flexible firm - Case Study Hilton Works Fordism: - mass production and consumption Key features  organization of production focused on the mass production of standardized goods  utilizes scientific management and assembly-line technologies  vertical Integration: ownership of supply and distribution networks  Mode of regulation= Keynesian economic policies (protectionist markets, from overseas companies, tariffs and taxations) active government intervention in the marketplace prevents instability the rise of unions, labour power the support of decent wages the rise of unemployment benefits and labour laws Crisis of Fordism 1. Inflationary pressures made some firms uncompetitive (e.g., full employment) 1. Because of the mass consumption, the rise of unions, decent wages created a downfall, the markets could not keep with the demands 2. Difficult to achieve continuous 3. productivity increases and wage increases 4. Global pressures and recessions in 1970’s weakened profits/growth 5. Postmodern consumption patterns led to demand for specialty/customized goods 1. After mass production and consumption, people wanted something different, specialties 6. Need for adaptable work organization to meet new demands 7. Erosion of Keynesianism 1. Changes started to make (upheaval), the free market, no government interventions came about Late 1960s prices of gases started to increase, bought economies into recession The Post-Industrial Society  Daniel Bell “the knowledge economy” : saw it as a promising society, creative workers power resides to the access of knowledge JAN, 14 , 2013 Rise of knowledge workers Reduce polarization of classes  Leading to more equality, knowledge class/society  Robert Reich The rise of symbolic analysts, the engineers in society Maintenance of production workers The rise of the service workers (fast food workers, nannies, etc) symbolic analysts and routine production workers and service workers Increasing polarization amongst new classes of workers Globalization* Key related changes  Economic: new regime of accumulation (promotion of a free market)  Increase capital across transnational corporations  Harmonization of taste across borders as well  Ideological  Liberalizing trade, deregulation  Expansion of IT  Access to each other through globalization of IT  The rise of the service sector  Political: new mode of regulation: (Cohen and Kennedy)  Cultural  Idea of nation states; global economy  Mobility of labour  People moving around borders and going into different types of labour *Deregulation, no government interventions: a lot of people push for this goal - Environment protection, national cultures - Local and migrant workers / contingent workers Industrial Restructuring in Canada  Deindustrialization Factor closures Factory relocation: non western locations because labour is cheaper manufacturing --> service based economy  big 3 car companies are location in Canada > increased jobs for Canadians  new conservative political ‘doctrines’ (i.e., lessening of gov’t regulation, Recall: Adam Smith)  Current round of restructuring = response to globalization, especially economic globalization Sector/Occupation Changes  Industry: particular type of economic activity Primary Sector (resou
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