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soc362 lecture 2

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William Magee

SOC 362: WEEK 2 LECTURE 1. Justice/Morality & Subjective Wellbeing - Doing good things (e.g. altruism) is strongly and positively associated with feeling good (happy & satisfaction) - People feel bad when they perceive and injustice: distributional (equity theory), procedural and interactional Self-Enhancement Theory: feel good about being over rewarded (justify that I am better than others) - How ever not all injustices are perceived/recognized - Does lack of recognition negate complicity? LinksFact that a person feels good about spending less money at a store but child labor? Men that purchase sex workers?) Patterns become more complex when intersection of forms of injustice are considered and moral emotions are considered - When people receive unfavorable outcomes, they reach more negatively to fair procedures that to unfair procedures: if outcomes are negative, fair procedures lead to lower self-esteem (shamereflects moral failure of yourself)(pridehigh self esteem) - Moral failurecannot meet your goals or what others expect - Self-esteem is related to moral emotions of pride and shame Failure to Achieve Happiness as Moral Failure Pascal Bruckner said, “Happiness is a duty and responsibility. To fail utterly is to fail to be happy. Happiness has become a religion—How has a liberating principle of the Enlightenment—the right to pursue happiness—become the unavoidable and burdensome responsibility to be happy?” obligation to be happy and pressure 2. Money & Wellbeing - Easterlin Paradox: Easterlin found within given country people with higher incomes report to be being more happy - Personal Well-Being Index Satisfaction in 8 life domains, 11 point scale - Hedonic Treadmill The rate of which happiness increases associated with additional income declines and eventually becomes zero (“decreasing marginal utility”)e.g. working harder to increase income/wealth so as to increase happiness does not typically so as to increase happiness does not typically succeed after a certain point ones ends up on the treadmill - The Set point Explanation: Emotions maybe be limited to a range around a “set point”i.e. for most people level of positive emotions seems to have a baseline (associated with “emotional tone”) Some events can change this, but not increases in money it seems. - Research suggests that set-points can change—especially downwards Needs and Comparisons as Underlying the Non-Linear Association -Happiness is related to the fulfillment of needs and is thus limited to what needs money can fulfill “once basic needs are met. Individuals care as much about how they are doing in comparison with their peers rather than about absolute gains” (Carol Graham 2011) **Look at Social Comparison Graph Prof Made. 3. Multiple Discrepancies Theory - Alex Migolos created itTheory is based on Social Comparisons and focuses on satisfactions and happiness - Idea that SWB is a function of perceived discrepancies around multiple dimensions of having versus wanting - Wants are derived from comparisons - 7 types of comparisons are considered: social comparisons (what others have, equity) perceived needs, just deserts (i.e. what one believe one deserves), 3 kinds of temporal comparisons (past, best future), overall wants - Conditioners of Comparisons effects of comparisons and their weightings on satisfaction and affective outcomes specified as a function of age, sex, education, income, ethnicity, social support, and self-esteem E.g. Gender: Social comparisons (equity) most influential for men, gap with needs & goal-achievement discrepancy are most influential for women Menfocused on equities in job Womengrowth and p
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