Class Notes (809,509)
Canada (493,754)
Sociology (3,203)
SOC101Y1 (985)
Lecture 3

SOCA02 LECTURE 3 JAN 24 2013.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Ivanka Knezevic

Demographic transition  First demographic transition: change from low and stable population of pre-industrial societies (high fertility and high mortality) to growing population of industrial societies (slowly declining fertility, fast declining mortality).  Modernization theory of development: industrialization fosters labor force participation and rationalism, which foster decline in fertility  Cultural lag: cultural norms maintain high fertility  Second demographic transition: change from growing population of industrial societies to high and stable (later: declining) population of post-industrial societies (low fertility and low mortality). Population change in Canada- fertility  Demographic change is the result of fertility, mortality, and net migration. Declining fertility is the most important cause of population ageing  Fertility declined from 7 births per woman in the 1850s to under 2 by 1980s  Replacement fertility is the average number of children needed to replace one generation by the next (2.1 children per women) -2.1 instead of 2 so that these number of children can be sustained or since many may also die in childbirth  Proximate causes: fewer long-term relationships and marriages, older age at marriage, more divorces, cohabitation, and use of birth control  Cultural causes: changes in value and cost of children in both economic and cultural terms  Structural causes: changing role of men and women in their work and social life  Children are more an economic cost than value Population change in Canada-mortality  In 1831, life expectancy at birth was 39 years  In 2007, it was 81 years  Largely due to improved nutrition and the control of infectious diseases, which lowered infant mortality rates  Now most deaths are due to degenerative conditions, occurring at an even older age Population change in Canada-immigration  Immigration accounted for 45% of Canadian population growth in 1990s  Immigrant contribute to the population reproduction not only by net migration, but also by higher fertility rates than Canadian-born  Family class immigrants contribute to the ageing of the Canadian population  Issue: language-and culture-appropriate care for the elderly Population change in Canada-ageing  Indicators of age structure of a population: 1. Proportion of people over 65 (increased by 11.5% 2001-2006) to proportion of people under 15 (decreased by 2.5% 2001-2006); and 2. Median age (under or over 30)  People 20-65: active cohort (i.e. labour force) finances social services for themselves , children and the old  Phases of population aging in Canada:  1875-1960: slow aging (relatively fewer births but more survivors under 15
More Less

Related notes for SOC101Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.