Class Notes (839,189)
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Sociology (3,264)
SOC101Y1 (985)
Lecture 5


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Bonnie Fox

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SOC 214 LECTURE 6 OCTOBER 18TH 2011 - modern ideas that developed and shaped family - how did we move from family economy to this? - Cott- ideas that developed around the home - Margolis- explains why new ideas developed - Tamara H, working class families I. The idea that marriage should be based on love Stephanie Coontz, Marriage, A History- argues that it developed slowly over centuries , arranged mar- riages modified 17th century, 18th century, choice replaced arrangements - by 1850s’ for middle class and upper class couples love was seen at the basis of marriage and should be based on individual choice - love is not an invention of the 19th century, but love was never previously connected with marriage A. ‘Household economies’ in which married couples established independent households and “working partnerships”: foundation for (later) love-based marriage - different type of family pattern than the rest of the world, people est separate household from parents, it was essential that they get along - because worked together they had to cooperate - working partnerships B. Changing Ideas- cultural change (1) The Protestant Reformation (16th century): marriage as a superior state, the importance of the roles of husband and wife and mother, & the responsibilities of parents to their children - represented a change in thinking about family, view of marriage was second best- way to virtue was celibacy, purpose of marriage was procreation. Wives were to obey their husbands. Martin luther rejected notion of celibacy as superior. Attacked private vows abusive for women. He tried to elevate the status of husband and role of housewife. Luther talks about responsibilities to each other vs rights. Housewives- important role (2) The Enlightenment (18th century): the innocence of children, love as the basis of marriage - glorification of reason- we can live good life if live rational life - children are innocent (vs. catholic church, children born in sin, and parents need to civilize them) - mother should breast feed their own children (2) The French and American revolutions (18th): equality and the pursuit of happiness as human rights - equality becomes a concept , reaction of feudalism, rejection of authority - part of the french rev also, were criticism of patriarchy and women’s inequality - american rev- right to “pursuit of happiness” II. The “Cult of Domesticity” and Gender as“Separate Spheres” SOC 214 LECTURE 6 OCTOBER 18TH 2011 - notion of home as a refuge A. Economic change: the development of an industrial- capitalist economy (an important context) between 15-19th c 1) The development of a capitalist class and a market economy characterized by impersonal market forces operating beyond the control of humans - group of people begin to make money on long distance trade and in england, it was trade in wool goods, and were accumulating money. - different kind of market and market place - before people buying goods in local markets, which were run and controlled by guilds - as market place gets larger old norms dont work, control of market through guilds erodes - prices est through supply and demand - as merchants accumulate money, they decide to engage in the production of products, building facto- ries, which eventually ft division of labour- efficiency - scale of economy changes, and the scale of work place does as well 2) The development of a“working class”as peasants lost their land and artisans were unable to set themselves up in business - people who can only survive by working for other people - base don waged labour - series of events in england, deprived peasants of access to land and artisans to enough money to set up own business - as merchants did better, bought more sheep, needed more land, leading to extreme price increases - as merchant class become more powerful, thee realized there were laws restricting business so tried to gain more political power - the enclosure acts- made all public land in england- many peasants could no longer survive - land was at the foundation of a family economy - process involved people losing access to land, therefore losing their way of life - people had to leave, migrating into cities to look for work - often men lave families for wage work - and never return - wage work= increased economic insecurity - many people saw new economy as immoral ( factories = immoral, strangers supervise you and you have to leave your family) 3. A new economic order, tremendous social changes cult of domesticity - search of identity from the middle class - as business gets bigger, need more labour, but all people cant live with you B. The rise of the middle class 1) The search by successful businessmen for a pastoral retreat: the Home SOC 214 LECTURE 6 OCTOBER 18TH 2011 removal of work from household- in 19th c workplaces were iner with housing, at some point people who got wealthy decided it would be better to get away from the city and live in the suburbs - home as peaceful haven 2) Long-term trend: the separation of commodity- producing work & the home and family life. 3) The search by the new middle class for a public identity as a class -neither group was seen as prominent or skilled in case of doctors and dentists, they had to gain credibili- ty and respect, need to be seen as ethical and capable - making profit was previously seen as immoral, so business men seen as immoral- wage slavery - cared about rep because wanted more political power - working on convincing gov to give them certification power (Drs and Dentists) - find community in protestant religious movement , ideas of domesticity comign out of religious theories, because they were affiliated to these movements - juxtaposition between home and the outside world - home- moral - economy- immoral - business men and professionals began to present themselves a “family men”, therefor moral caring per- sons, certain class and certain race C.The Effects 1) The “cult of domesticity,” the family as a “haven in a heartless world” - withdraw from outside world, privacy becomes important - white middle class, see themselves as different from other people, now “my family” is different form other people. Servants was likely working class girl, ethnically diff- clear - wealthy businessmen have time to come home so things changed 2) “Separate spheres” gender ideology: men and women as “opposite sexes” belonging in separate spheres (public and private), and different roles (breadwinning and homemaking/mothering) - men and women are different “opposite sex” suited to do different kinds of work - ideal of the home, implies new notions of gender, someone needs to be there to make the home- the woman - men suited to world of business, women to the home - older notion of women was that they were simply inferior - now they are recognized as completely different - ideals not just imposed on people, women created these idea sometimes, because they were conscious of the fact that women were losing their work, so needed to create a new idea of their work at home being important, “raising children then foundation of society” - notion that women are moral
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