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Lecture 8

SOC220 Lecture 8

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FEB 25 TH 2013 SOC220 Lecture 8 Good Jobs/Bad Jobs and Workers Resistance (Unions and Strikes) Contemporary Issues in Work Today’s Lecture Good jobs versus bad jobs - Extrinsic rewards Bad jobs: Nonstandard work and precarious employment - Cranford et al. (2006) “The Gender of Precarious Employment in Canada” (pp. 99- 119: note correction). Unions and labour movements - General overview, views, history of unions in Canada Worker resistance: Strikes and labour unrest - Movie clip: Made in Dagenham Good Job Versus Bad Job How can we define a job as “good” or “bad”? - Evaluation of extrinsic and intrinsic job rewards - Extrinsic rewards o Income and occupation status o Employment benefits o Personal health risks Income and Occupational Status Income - Unequal distributions within industries and between occupations o Considerations…  White, blue, and pink collar  Disclosure  Minorities (i.e., the wage gap)  Students Occupation Status - Strongly correlated with skill and income - National Occupation Classification and related scales - Associated with intrinsic job rewards (to be discussed next week) Employment Benefits  What constitutes employment benefits? “indirect pay or increased security” associated with a given job (KLH, p. 113). Employment Insurance (EI), CPP (Canadian Pension Plan), Worker’s Compensation (for work related injuries), paid sick leave, maternity/paternity leave Often referred to as “fringe” benefits Fulltime, professionals, and unionized better off. Personal Risk FEB 25 TH 2013  “[B]etween 1993 and 2005, a total of 11,124 Canadian workers—an average of four per working day—died as a result of their job”  “…the chances of being killed on the job are still greater than those of being killed on the road by a drunk driver” (KLH, p. 115). Construction, transportation jobs, production (p. 118), Exposure to harmful substances may have more long term effects (i.e., asbestos inhalation). Also massive costs (e.g., $4.65 billion-1998). For these reasons, employees and government regulators taking greater precautions since 1980’s (i.e., OSHA, “Safe at Work Ontario”), *it’s a combo of all three factors that make a job good Critical thinking Worker Injury ….  What about costs associated with “good jobs”, like professional occupations?  Doctors, nurses  What about lucrative jobs that combine severe physical risks, like professional sports?  Are these “good” or “bad” jobs then? Bad Jobs: Non-Standard and Precarious Work  Cranford, Vosko and Zukewich (2006)  What is “nonstandard work”? Employment situations that deviate from the “standard employment relationship” (SER)  What is the SER? “…refers to a normative model of employment where the worker has one employer, works full-time, year-round on the employer’s premises under his or her supervision, enjoys extensive statutory benefits and entitlements and expects to be employed indefinitely” (p. 99) Stability in schedule, location, and future employment The Rise of Nonstandard Employment  Nonstandard employment reflects a growing periphery or “secondary” labour market, with an emphasis on flexibility and cost reduction.  Includes: Part-time work (less than 30hrs/wk) Multiple jobs Self-employment Temporary or contract work  Are all nonstandard jobs bad? No, but tend to pay less, have fewer benefits, and less security “Bad” Non-Standard Jobs=Precarious Work  Precarious work refers to “…forms of employment involving atypical employment contracts, limited social benefits and statutory entitlements, job insecurity, low job tenure, low earnings, poor working conditions and risks to ill health” (Cranford et al. p. 99).  How does this differ from nonstandard work? FEB 25 TH2013 Nonstandard work encompasses all employment situations deviating from the SER. This approach, however, is too broad to really assess the proliferation of bad jobs. Precarious work refers ONLY to nonstandard work that embody the aforementioned features, and therefore are detrimental to the individual. These are the truly “bad jobs” over 50% of the population is employed in some type of non- standard work  Examples? Cleaners, outsource caregivers What is Precarious Work “Gendered”?  What does “gendered” mean? “…gender shapes the social relations in key institutions that organize society…” (i.e., family, workplace) Differences between men and women come be seen as “social inequalities” (p. 99).  The feminization of employment norms Decline of the SER after WWII (largely based on the “ideal” male worker) An instable global economy led to nonstandard types of jobs Women occupied most of these, and among the most precarious Their participation in such work was justified by expected domestic obligations Women’s “overrepresentation” in precarious work had implications for its associations employment norms (i.e., they became prevalent) Today, these employment relations have proliferated, but are still founded on the traditional notion of the female domestic worker, which is not applicable to workers’ (both men and women) today. How gender has structured those relations The Feminization of Employment N
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