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Lecture 9

SOC101Y1 Lecture 9: Race and Ethnicity

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University of Toronto St. George
Christian O.Caron

    SOC101 – INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY th Nov 16 , 2016 Lecture 9 – Race and Ethnicity Race and Ethnicity in Canada Today - Many of the interactions between people in the macro level - Canada is a diverse and complex society composed of racially and ethnically different groups - Canada is widely renowned for its cultural democracy and harmonious ethnic diversity Multiculturalism or Vertical Mosaic - Vertical Mosaic: Canada’s ethnic groups are vertically arranged according to income power, and prestige o Being a member of a certain group is associated with the following patterns  More likely (i.e. whites – upper class) o Porter’s work - Dissimilarity (occupational differentiation) & inequality (stratification) o Difference odes not equal to inequality o Occupational differentiation – are people in different groups more likely to be drawn to different types of work - Lautard and Guppy compared 1971 and 2006 figures – ethnic stratification was less pronounced in 2006 than in 1971 - 1931-2006 – decline in the signification of ethnicity occurred for both occupational differentiation and stratification o Occupational differentiation:  Reduction of ethnic division of labour of 30% for men, 45% for women over 70 years o Occupational stratification:  Reduction of 50% for men and 45% for women over 50 years o Yet, ethnic origin continues to affect occupational inequality Race: Does it Exist? - Race as a social construct o A social construct used to distinguish people in terms of one or more physical markers, such as skin colour, hair texture or eye shape for example, usually with profound effects on their lives - Race matters because... o Allows forms of social inequality to be created and perpetuated o How people treat one another because of it o Race is power - Video: The social construction of race o No deterministic, biological basis of race o A racial divide with social discrimination is utilized as a tool to exert power and superiority of another group Race matters - Racialization: The social and political processes by which racial groups are socially constructed based on perceived physical differences - Eugenics movement: founded on a social philosophy dedicated to improving human heredity through selective breeding for ‘desirable characteristics’ th - Most famous proponent in 20 century: Adolf Hitler o Canadian example: Alberta Sexual Sterilization Act (1928)  2800 sterilizations approved between 1929-1972     Ethnicity - An ethnic group is a collect of people distinguished, by other sor by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics - Ethnic groups often share: o Unique cultural traits  Language, clothing, holidays o A sense of community o Ascribed membership from birth  Ethnicity is something we’re born into , although not something entirely biological  Territoriality or the tendency to occupy or identifiy with a distinct geographic area o Ethnicity can provide a sense of identity and belonging, although not everyone identifies with any one specific ethnic group Census (2011) - A political tool - Can be useful when it generates data that help to shape public policy for the benefit of the country’s citizen - Can also serve more subversive, unabashedly racist, political agendas - Both Canadian and American census allow a fair degree of choice, us asks all respondents to identity their ‘race’ a, the Canadian form ask respondents to identify their ‘ethnic or cultural origins’ as well as those of their ancestors Demography - More than 200 different ethnic/cultural origins of respondents; ancestors Visible Minority - More than 5 mill Canadians, 16% of population, identified themselves as members of visible minorities - Canadian E
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