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Lecture 6

SOC101Y1 Lecture 6: Socialization and Social Interaction

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University of Toronto St. George
Christian O.Caron

    SOC101 – INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY th Oct 19 , 2016 Lecture 6 – Socialization and Social Interaction Socialization - Socialization: Is a lifelong process by which people learn each others cultures o Norms, values and roles  Roles is behaviour expected of a person occupying a particular position in society  i.e. student, sibling, worker, etc. Formation of the self - Social Psychology – relationship between individuality and social context - The self – a sense of individual identity that allows us to understand who we are in relation to others and to differentiate ourselves from them o Formation of a sense of self begins in childhood and conditions in adolescence o Crystallization of self-identity during adolescence is just one episode in lifelong process of socialization Changing theories about self - Freud – Only social interaction allows the self to emerge o i.e. with our parents, developing relationships, with authority o Extremely important relationships really allow our selves to emerge the most - Cooley – Looking Glass Self - Mead – I (individual impulses, self as subject) and Me (generalized other, self as object) o I – goes and do things, interacts, active component o Me – thinking about yourself - Goffman – Multiple Selves o Self as a constellation of multiple selves  Different aspects of people that come out depending on their surroundings, companies, environment with quite a bit of variations  Moving away from the “one true self” o Who we are is a culmination of a lot of different selves we’ve made Habitus – Pierre Bourdieu - Habitus: A system of embodied dispositions, tendencies that organize the ways in which individual perceive the social world around them and react to it o Many of these different individual aspects that are shaped by our social environment will go unnoticed o Habitus is different from habit in one important respect: habitus are not just the consequences of our individual history (i.e. outcomes), but are also generative (i.e. causes) - Systems of durable dispositions where our past experience are integrated into how we behave, which then impact our perceptions, our appreciations, and our actions o i.e. Accents,  Can be a result of rational decision - Leads us to see particular things and understand the world in particular ways, have different tastes and to make key distinctions between what is right and what is wrong and so forth - Impacts behaviour, but at an unconscious rather than conscious level - Self – we are our ways of perceiving valuing and knowing – Sandywell (1996) Gender Socialization     - Gender Socialization is the process through which individuals learn to become feminine/masculine according to expectations current in their society o i.e. How they learn from others on how they dress, speak, act, etc. - Gilligan demonstrated sociological factors help explain differences in sense of self that boys and girls usually develop Agents of Socialization - Families – most important agent of primary socialization, which is process of mastering basic skills required to function in society during childhood - Schools – Increasingly responsible for secondary socialization, or socialization outside the family after childhood - Peer Groups – consist of individuals - Mass Media – have become increasingly important socializing agents in 21 century o We self select what we want to watch/read o Mass media includes o Fastest-growing mass medium is the internet allowing adolescents and adults to engage in self-socialization, which involves choosing socialization influences from the wide variety of mass media offerings  Increasingly have more control on who and what we spend time with - Other agents: religious institutions, athletic teams, youth groups, workplace, etc Resocialization and total institutions - Resocialization: Takes place when powerful socializing agents deliberately cause rapid change in people’s values, roles, and self-conception, sometimes against their will
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