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Lecture 7

SOC101Y1 Lecture 7: Groups and Organizations

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101Y1
Professor
Christian O.Caron
Semester
Fall

Description
    SOC101 – INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY th Oct 26 , 2016 Lecture 7 – Groups and Organizations The bonds that unite: Speaking of ‘we’ - Looking at how individuals are brought together within larger configurations of people. How does this occur, under what circumstances and with what effects? o What purpose do these groups have? o Why are we drawn to joining particular groups? o What does our memberships to these groups mean, etc. - Another way of putting it: who do we mean when we say ‘all of us’, ‘we demand’, and ‘we would agree’, who is the ‘we’? o How is it constituted? Social Groups - A collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another person and share a sense of belonging o Can also say they are composed of set of people who identify with one another, and adhere to defined norms, roles, or statuses o i.e. Members of a family, sports team, college Primary groups - Groups where norms, roles and statuses are agreed upon but not put in writing o Social interaction leads to strong emotional ties, extends over long periods, and involves a wide range of activities o Results in group members knowing one another well  i.e. The family (most important) Secondary groups - Larger groups and more impersonal o Social interaction in narrow range of activities over shorter periods of time that create weaker emotional ties  i.e. Sociology class Inclusion and exclusion: In-groups and out-groups - In-Group members: Those who belong to a group o In-group members typically draw boundary separating themselves from members of out-group (policing between the two) o Also try to keep out-group members from crossing the line  i.e. Unions - Out-group members: Those who are excluded from an in-group - Boundary separating groups: race class, athletic ability, academic talent, physical attractiveness Network: - Network: A web of social relationships that link one person with other people and through them with more people that those people know. Patters of exchange determine boundaries of the network - Social Network: Maybe formal (defined in writing) but are more often informal (defined only in practice) o Used to study spread of ideas or diseases across a population o Network analysis – becoming more important in sociology (also used for crime) Networks starting premise     - Social life is created primarily and most importantly by relations and the patterns formed by these relations - Defined as a set of notes (or network members) that are tied by one or more types of relations Network analysis - Connectedness (e.g. the idea that individuals are connected by six degrees of separation - Contagion (i.e. the flow of influence across ties and potency of influence up to 3 connections) - Our connections shape networks: o Who we associate with, usually choosing those like us (homophily) o How interconnected our relationships are (transitivity)  Mutual friends o The connection between different networks with which we are a part (multiplexity) Structural dynamics of: - 1. Group size - 2. Frequency of contact - 3. Strength between ties can affect the flow and receipt of influence o Strong ties offer consistency and reinforcement o Weak ties can introduce innovation and exposure to novel information - Networks shape behaviour through processes such as modeling, reinforcement, and reference group comparisons Network effects - Differential effects occur on the basis on the individual’s structural position o Those with more connections are more central and therefore more privy to the communication that flows o Those on the periphery are less influenced (and are less influential) Organizations - Organizations: social groups pursuing defined tasks are otherwise called purpose groups o Have organizational rules members must follow - Individuals have different ‘roles’ to play within organizations - Formal organi
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