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SOC101Y1 (985)
Robert Brym (148)

research methods class 2.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

SOC101Y1 Prof. Brym 04/03/13 • Surveys are part of the fabric of everyday life in North America and elsewhere in the world. • IQ tests, SAT’s are types of surveys.. we are therefore very familiar with them - people who are motivated to say nasty things about their children are the ones who are most likely to answer such a question! - population of interest Sampling - a sampleis a part of a group - a populationis the entire group - a voluntaryresponsesampleis a group of people who chose themselves in response to a general appeal - a representativesampleis a group of people chosen so their characteristics closely match those of the population of interest (over-representation of elderly in malls) - a conveniencesampleconsists of people who are easiest to reach - If respondents are chosen at random and an individual’s chance of being chosen is known and greater than zero, the respondents constitute a probabilitysample(first you need a sampling frame) - a samplingframeis a list of all the people in the population of interest - a randomizingmethodis a way of ensuring every people in the sampling frame has a known, equal, and non-zero chance of being selected SamplingErrorI Because the sample measures fall within overlapping margins of error, we conclude that the measured difference in the popularity of the two parties is not statistically significant Conservatives - 48% (2.5% margin of error) Liberals- 50% (2.5% margin of error) SamplingErrorII Here, the sample measures fall outside the margins of error, so we conclude that the measured difference in the popularity of the two parties is statistically significant Conservatives - 48% (2.5% margin of error) Liberals - 55% (2.5% margin of error) Probability sampling enables us to conduct surveys Surveys - A mailquestionnaireis a form containing questions mailed to the res
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