Samuel George Morton
- physician in the states
- considered to be one of the most distinguished men in medicine at the time
- collect skulls and fill skulls up with marbles tot ry and measure the physical volume and space of the
- in doing so, he compared this across races
- most successful races amongst hierarchy had the biggest brains
- those that ranked lowest in society had the smallest brains
- he claimed that the people with the biggest brains were whites of european origins, then asians,etc.. and
at the bottom of the social hierarchy were blacks
- function of the kinds of different mental capacities that come with one’s racial background
- colonization and slavery were results of this oppressive evidence
- methological problems with thesis however...
- 71% of Morton’s skulls that he identified as negroes were women... however only 45% of the whites
- Women’s bodies are smaller!
- He would have to compare men with men and women with women
- If we compare white and black women skulls.. the white skulls are a bit bigger, however if we compare
white and black men skulls.. the black skulls are bigger
Jews scored below average in 1920’s
• Jews not score above average
What happened? What changed?
• During 20th century, most Jews worked hard.. made their way up the hierarchal stage
Average IQ scores went up.. not because of genetics but because of change in socioeconomic status
• US in 1990’s... African americans below whites on IQ tests
• iQ scores are not rooted in biology
• 300 blacks and latino students (students that would drop out)
- readjusted the school system = teaching resources
- now most students take honors classes by the time they are seniors- 80% go to college
- achievement and education had a lot to do with the resources = nothing to do with race
• some people say african americans are better than whites at sports
• 60% of NBA runners and 65% of NFL players are black
• North and East Africans regularly win the distance running olympic medals..
• SPRINTING MEDALS.. almost all african americans (under 10s)
If we look historically... other factors..
• no gene linked to athletic superiority
• MORESO.. athletes of african descent perform very well in certain sports but do not perform unusually
well in some other sports.. gymnastics, soccer, tennis, swimming etc! SOC101Y1-WEEKONRACE/ETHNICITY
• If this were true.. we’d need to conclude that blacks lack good soccer genes, swimming genes
• A more credible and sociological explanation is that different groups seem to excel in sports due to
social cultural factors and maybe climate
• scientists have noted certain social conditions... people who face widespread prejudice often enter into
sports.. also more than their racial counterparts may enter into the entertainment industry and crime
Prejudiceis an attitude that people employ to judge others on their group’s real or imagined characteristics
Discriminationis unfair treatment of people due to their perceived group membership.
• Up until 1950’s.. Jew’s played a big role in BBALL...
• NY knicks.. had a very Jewish squad
• thought that blacks are better than whites at sports... is a complement that blacks are inferior in