Canada is a diverse and complex society composed of racially and ethnically different groups. Canada is widely renowned for its cultural democracy and harmonious ethnic diversity. Signi cant gains in the past 50 years for visible and non-visible minority groups. The existence of dissimilarity does not prove inequality. Between 1931 and 2006 a decline in the signi cance of ethnicity occurred for both occupational differentiation and strati cation. Occupational differentiation: reduction of ethnic division of labor of 30% for men and. Occupational strati cation: reduction of 50% for men and 45% for women over 50 years. Phenotypical differences (such as facial characteristics or skin colour) do not correlate with genotypical differences (differences in genetic makeup) Race: a social construct used to distinguish people in terms of one or more physical markers, such as skin colour, hair texture, or eye shape for example, usually with profound effects on their lives.