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pol320 oct. 25, 2012.docx

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Oct. 25, 2012 Dignity/respect/autonomy Pg. 4.435-6 (42-43) starts with “morality is the condition along rational being can be an ed itself…law giving member?.....hence morality….capapble of morality is that which alone has dignity?...inner worth… but law giving itself determines..unconditional incomparable worth. Autonomy is the ground for dignity… - Person who was crazy about chocolate. Decide they choose. I eat too much. Give myself a rule and give one chocolate bar a week and tries to stick by the rule. Made a decision. Made a choice and they are saying… I have made a decision and abide by my decision. They stick to it. They have will power. They stick by this decision no matter what. We admire ppl with willpower because external roles. When follow laws. No ones going to sanction it. (also being a motivating source) - Theres external force out there as a back up. - What if you give yourself own rule? There are no external sanction. Cant sanction yourself because you need externality - Weakness of will….stick to own deiciosn= sticking to principle not because of sanction but you have willed it. Internal form of legislation* - In the case of chocolate these are relative goods. - Being a self-legislator.. only human can step outside and make it an assessment. And willing it you self legislate. You give rules to yourself. Some form of sanction and moral principles are “self-legislative”** you govern yourself. Normative self government* - You give yourself a law and you stick to that law to the extent that you willed it yourself. - Simply because its right. - 1. This capacity to self govern – to figure out what is right and to do it and stick by it simply by their own will is a capacity that all human beings have 2. Capacity that’s excersied economy- imam follow my choices. - Self determining! Only your own will! - This gives you dignity because you are a self-governing agent. - You take responsibility for your life and moral action being autonomous. - This is both huge responsibility and capcity that should be respect and which is why we should allow ppl to make their own choices* - Kant wants to draw pictures of human beings deserving respect because they can self- governmnt. Realization that something is right and wrong and stick by principle no matter what happens outside the rule - Animals cant but only through human rationality! - This idea of dignity respect and autonomy is kant’s characterization of what its like to be human and confer respect. - We confer respect to everybody regardless hehterh they act right or wrong… - Respecting everyone no matter what who choose not to act morally… still included in the universal respect. - The answer is that for kant, its everyone have that potential. For people who don’t exercise that potential, they stil actually have that potential. Because they don’t exercesrise It doesn’t mean ywe cant respect them. - Peope are not shraes… cant use them - Even if they chosen not to excersie that, and for some reason that capacity in the past doesn’t work (accident, coma, etc) - Kantians don’t have to work hard about is why you would respect someone who is morally evil and whos in a coma or mental deficiency. - Sets limits on how you can treat the person - Someone who is morally evil- don’t respect them at a prasial sense but still cant enslave them - Many are based on notion of dignity of a human person that sets limits. - Every person in principle- member f humanity has the capacity to govern themselves morally which deserves respect even if ppl don’t exercise it. - **for kantThis is the concept of equality. Arugment for why all human beings have some kind of first order equal status. No human beings may be treated merely as a thing or as means ** Conclusion/Review - Reason cant exaggerate. REASON is the center. He is a rationalist. Important of rational faculty. Distinct and in need of opposition- appeitite, desires, inclination. At the level of philosophy mind/ level of indiviulal person. Kant has a dualist view. We are reason and appeitite. Just follow reason to be good. Just following appeitite is bad. Secular raiontla philosoohy. But it’s a reoccuring theme. Reason for kant- notion of practical reason (reason to figure out what we OUGHT to do) kant gives answers to what is right.) he is distinguished… conception f reason in the modern world, prolly most widely accepted concept of reason is INSTRUMENTAL reason. To be rational is to be consistent and follow rules of logic and to be able to use deduction and safety. Reason itself has no subsitivie content. (hume)Reason is simple rule of logic. It’s a structure of rules and functions that cant tell you whats good or bad… once you put content in reason, its more complicated. Kant rejects full instrumental view but fully subsitive view. Kant rejects tht reason can give you good. Reason can give minimal content…. Reason will tell you that morally right principles- reason alone will tell you you cannot use human being as a mean. All you have to use your reason. Not other ppl * this for him is a moral content. Using reason in everyday sense of advancing ourself/think critically wil make the world a better place. This leads to action of progress. - Religion committed to a articulating moral and political philosophy that doesn’t principle rely on god. He is famous of a book (religion and bounds of reason) one of his objects in life was to layout what reason is and what limits are. He is quite clear that reason cannot tell you and leave to full religious faith. Reason cant prove existence of god outside the bounds of reason. Which is a reason why its important to able an instructure moral theory NOT to depend on god** in his basic articulation in his moral philosophy, its outside. Its clear and modern attempt to ground moral/philosophy on purely rational theme. - Public sphere enlightenment…. (short reading) ***responsible for test!!!**** “englithenment emergence from self imposed maturity… this immatureity is self imposed lies not in lack of understanding but resoelve courage without guidance of another” arugment here is that intellectual not able to make deiciosn isn’t because ppl are incapacble but don’t have courage to use their own undesrtnaidng. Eventually veryone has that and society should encourage! To encourage ppl to mae deiciosn for themselves. Age of englightenment! In his society capable but didn’t develop the skills. So enocruage all ppl to use their own reason. One of the most important* mecahsnim was freedom of press/ thought/active public sphere** “it is difficult for man..nature” if you grown up whre ppl told you what to do, not enocuarge to think for yourself… ex. Parents, ministers, etc. its hard to deciide to be indepdnetn and have resources to critically deciede on what youre doing. Public sphere thatths governed by freedom. Beginning of third paragraph..”individual cant do it themsevels… 4 paragraph” open debate to everything! Was the MOST important mechanism to bring about general enlgihtenmnet and bring about progress and better society. What would happen is take darkness off and expose to superstition, corruption, publicit of deep injustice that’s going on. Theres an optimism when you have progress for reason into enlgihtnement. - Progress kant believed in progress as a modern thinker.**** - Rights kant is a fathero f rights. Idea of limits. Free beings to puruse our own life plans. Internalism is guidicance from the government. We need toact for ourselves and need rights to do this. - Liberty kant is a philosopher of liberty. Difference between liberty and autonomy. Autonomy there is an individual an dcoolective. Autonomy means self government. Making shcoices for yourself. For kant autonomy… just acts on reason (wht is right thig to do) autonomy in public is run like reosueeau. Liberty in the other hand, moderr notion of liberty, really rather than looking at internal soruce of self motiviation, liberty is source of right. Space/freedom ofwhat you want to do - Equality we are all equal in dignity… - Fraternity community/ solidarity/ thick ties that ppl can have in political communities and so on. Not associated with philosopher of fraternity…. Because basis of moral obligation and political obligation are affections/feeling. Thses are however udependeable. We need something everyone can act on* stresses humanity and obligation obligation and idea of effective ties between humans. Individutalistic. Human becomes individual atoms? - Athenticitythere is a certain type of authenticity in kant. Meaning expressing really who you are. Kant thinks that we are all individuals and beign individuals we puruse own ends. Different ends from everyone else… l.ivein world to puruse those ends. In that sense, he does encourage ppl who they want to be but really mean to be human is not what makes us different but what makes us same********* authentically in human way is to act human way how other human beings own act the same* ex. Moral situation- need to keep our promise, in acting on duty and saying it is right thing to do this not because I want to do it becaue it makes me feel good but it’s a duty. This is expressing your universal command. Authenticity for kant doesn need to differeniaion. We act as human beings- act as any other human being. Promote romantic movement. Expressing who you are as an individual. Independent in society. - Autonomy it ends with reason and autonomy******* mega concept for kant.* autonomus= self governingperson who chooses to act in a certain way. Radical autonomy is ration of free will. Mostly talking about autonomous person who thinks for themselves. Ex. They think of traditions rather than thinking to tradition they think saying if those traditions are good or not. Live through own value. I chose
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