Class Notes (810,841)
Canada (494,278)
Sociology (3,207)
SOC101Y1 (985)
S.Ungar (4)

Chapter 15 - SOC.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George

Week 3 – Family Marriage Prof. S. Ungar Chapter 15: Families Page 379 - 407 IS“THE FAMILY ”IN DECLINE? Nuclear Family = consists of a cohabitating man and woman who maintain a socially approved sexual relationship and have at least one child. Traditional Nuclear Family = is a nuclear family in which the husband works outside the home for money and the wife works without pay in the home.  Many ppl sound the alarm when the family undergoes rapid changed and particularly when the divorce rate increases  1901  69% of Canadian families were nuclear  1940s & 1950s  the ideal family form was a nuclear family  2006  fewer than 39% of Canadian families were nuclear  Some sociologist (mainly functionalist)blame the rise in crime rates, illegal drug use, poverty, & welfare dependency was a result of fewer Canadian children living in 2 parent households w/ stay at home moms  Other sociologist (conflict & feminist theories) argue that it is incorrect to believe that there is only 1 family form FUNCTIONALISM AND THE N UCLEAR IDEAL Functional Theory  From a functionalist’s view the nuclear family performs 5 MAIN FUNCTIONS: 1. It provides a basis for regulated sexual activity 2. Economic cooperation 3. Reproduction 4. Socialization 5. Emotional support Polygamy = expands the nuclear family horizontally by adding one or more spouses (usually women) to the household  Polygamy is still legal in less industrialized countries of Africa & Asia Extended Family = expands the nuclear family vertically by adding another generation – one or more of the spouses’ parents – to the household  George Murdock conducted a famous study on 250 mainly preliterate, foraging societies in the 1940s 1 Week 3 – Family Marriage Prof. S. Ungar Marriage = is a socially approved, presumably long-term sexual and economic union b/w a man and a woman. IT involves reciprocal rights and obligations b/w spouses and b/w parents and children. Foraging Societies  Foraging societies are nomadic groups of 100/fewer ppl  Gender division of labour – men hunt, women gather wild edible plants & handle child care o However, it isn’t as strict as functionalist say it is – women hunt as well & men tend to the children too  Contrary to Murdock it is the band not the nuclear family that is the most efficient social organization for providing everyone w/ valuable food sources  Children are an investment but too many is a liability  Are highly cooperative societies thus socialization is a public affair – families help each other The Canadian Middle Class in the 1950s  During the Great Depression & WWII, Canadians were forced to postpone marriage b/c of widespread poverty , gov’t imposed austerity, & physical separation  The postwar era was a time when Canadians wanted to settle down – time of optimism & prosperity o Real per capita income rose o Increase in % of home owners o Mid-1950s  employment & personal income reached all-time highs o Services & legislative amendments created during WWII that encouraged wives & mothers to join the labour force were rescinded  Expectation was that a return to “normal” meant the resumption of the men’s provider & women’s housewife roles o This resulted in a 1. marriage boom  women went from 24.4 to 23.4; men 27.6 to 26.1 2. baby boom  avg 4 children o 1951  90% of married men & 11.2% of women were in the paid labour force  Poor women worked inside & outside the house  Middle class women engaged in “orgy of domesticity”  Orgy of Domesticity = devoting increasing attention to child rearing & housework  Also became increasingly concerned w/ emotional quality of family life as love & companionship became firmly established as the main motivation for marriage Marriage Rate = is the # of marriages that occur in a year for every 1000 people in the population  Peaked at 10.9 marriages in 1942 & 1946 then started to fall Divorce Rate = is the # of divorces that occur in a year for every 1000 people in the population 2 Week 3 – Family Marriage Prof. S. Ungar  Started to increase in the 1960s w/ the intro of more liberal divorce laws  Functionalist missed the big picture b/c they ignored the degree 1. The traditional nuclear family is based on gender inequality 2. Changes in power relations b/w women & men have altered family structures in recent decades CONFLICT AND FEMINIST THEORIES  Fredrich Engels argued that the traditional nuclear family emerged along w/ inequalities of wealth o Men were only able to control who got their inheritance by controlling his wife sexually & economically  Sexual control – enforced by female monogamy ensured only his offspring would get his property  Economic control – ensured the man’s property would not be squandered o He concluded the only that the only the elimination of private property & creation of economic equality (i.e. communism) could bring an end to gender inequality & the traditional nuclear family  The gender revolution is evident in o the rise of romantic love & happiness as bases for marriage o the rising divorce rate o women’s increasing control over reproduction through contraceptives o women’s increasing participation in the system of higher education & paid labour force POWER AND F AMILIES Love and Mate Selection  Arranged marriages were based on the calculations intended to maximize their families prestige, economic benefits, and political advantages  18 Century England w/ the rise of liberalism & individualism – idea of love should be an st important factor for marriage 1 came up  Early 20 Century – Hollywood & the advertising industry created the intimate linkage b/w love & marriage by promoting self-gratification on a grand scael Social Influences on Mate Selection  Big change in mate selection in the 21 century was taking place online  Ppl fall in love but still tend to do so within clearly defined social boundaries  3 Social Forces Influence who you Fall in Love with & Marry: 1. Bring resources to the marriage market that they use to attract other mates o Include financial assets, status, values, tastes, knowledge o Want to maximize financial assets & status o Mate w/ those who share similar values, tastes, & knowledge 3 Week 3 – Family Marriage Prof. S. Ungar 2. Third Parties o Marriage b/w ppl of different groups may threaten the cohesion of 1/both groups & often intervene to prevent marriages outside the group o Families, neighbourhoods, communities, religion institutions raise young ppl to identify w/ the groups they are members of o They apply sanctions to young ppl who threaten to marry out 3. Demographic Variables o Chance of marrying inside your group increases and decreases w/ i. The group’s size & geographical [] ii. Ratio of men to women in a group iii. Local marriage markets Marital Satisfaction  Marital stability came to depend more on having a happy rather than useful marriage o This change occurred b/c women in Canada & other societies have become more autonomous  Factors that contributed to women’s autonomy:  Legalization of birth control which made it easier for women to delay childbirth  Increased presence in the paid labour force  In the late 1960s, laws governing divorce changed to make divorce easier & divide property b/w divorcing spouses more equitably The Social Roots of Marital Satisfaction  Main Factors Underlying Marital Satisfaction (MS): 1. Economic Factors o Lower social class & lower the educational level of the spouses more likely for financial pressures will make them unhappy & unstable marriage 2. Divorce Law o when ppl are free to end unhappy marriages & remarry the avg level of happiness increases among married ppl 3. Family Life Cycle o Divorce levels peak at year 5 of marriage & then falls o MS re
More Less

Related notes for SOC101Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.