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SOC101Y1 (985)


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University of Toronto St. George
Jeffrey Kopstein

SEXUAL OFFENDERS (BOBBY OATWAY) Whose rights should be upheld, victims or offenders? - No known offenders offended when they were at the keele halfway house - We don’t want him to go back to prison because once they get out, they get out, but with halfway houses they get gradually reintegrated under supervision, offenders are also fearful of getting out of prison - When a sex offender is released into the community there are notifications to the community so they would recognise him and the secrecy thing doesn’t happen - Fundamental notion that once an offender always offender from the community - Many prisons have separate units for sex offenders so they won’t be constantly harassed - Sexual offenders is one of those topics that have a lot of media and legislative attention, strikes fears in a lot of people, sex offenders encompass a wide range of individuals who engage in many different acts; sexual assault (rapes), indecent liberties, incest, child molesting - 1983 canada enacted a series of changes to sexual assault laws, that husbands can be charged with raping their wives, victims of rape can be of either sex, US did the same from rape statues to degrees of sexual assault..broader category of sexual assault the reporting of rapes and prosecution no longer needing to prove penetration can be convicted of a lesser degree of sexual assault - Offences of rapes and indecent assault to sexual assault, and sexual assault with weapons to aggravated sexual assault, can prosecute more - Sex offences are one of the least likely crimes to be reported and found - Changes in legislation may have actually helped, since 2002 the rate of reporting sexual assault have been 50% higher - In 1988, Canada created legislation covering sexual assault of children, more specific focus of different offences against children; sexual exploitation (e.g. authoritative position on youth), inviting sexual touching, etc., incest is also prohibited under this statute - Sexual offense of children in the late 80s and early 90s in several police agencies, these cases reveal that victims are 2/3 females, and 90% the perpetrator was a male - One of the most important data is that 81% of the cases the attacker was known to the victim, why is that an important statistic? o It could prevent moral panics...offenders attacked people that they know not strangers - 24% were parents, 17% were other family members... - Only 11% were strangers What do we know about recidivism? - Recidivism : reoffending - To measure how likely they would reoffend measure how many people went back to prison, self-report - Tend to measure by looking at re-arrest/re-conviction - Reconviction is a tougher measure, but re-arrest is difficult too because people can not get arrested - Different comparison groups, some compared sexual offenders to other violent offenders, different types of sexual offenders (rapists vs. Child molesters) and the follow- up period can affect the estimate, meda-analyses, some found that child molesters have a higher rate, whereas father-daughter incest where the father has no other victims compared to child molesters they had a low-low rate of recidivism, - the most comprehensive studies of this kind was done in 1994 what it involved was 15 state prisoins in US release almost 10 000 offenders and follow up of 3 years and compared to other offenders not just sex offenders but other types as well recidism measured by rearrest, reconviction, and re emprisonment Sexual offenders
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