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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George

Week 4 October-02-13 12:13 PM Socialization and Social Interaction  Socialization: a life-long process by which people: o Learn their culture- including norms, values and roles (role in behaviour expected of a person occupying a particular position in society o Become aware of themselves as they interact with others o Unleash one`s potential i.e becoming fully human Formation of the Self  The Self: a sense of individual identity that allows us to understand who we are in relation to others an do differentiate ourselves from the many  Formation of a sense of self beings in childhood and continues in adolescence  Crystallization of self-identity during adolescences (look at PP) Changing Theories About Self  Freud- only social interaction allows the self to emerge  Cooley- looking-glass self  Mead- I (person impulses, self as subject) and Me (generalized other, self as object)- who we are  Goffman: Multiple Selves - taking away from 1 true self - patterns that transcend Gender Socialization  Process through which individuals learn to become feminine and masculine according to expectations current in their society - certain roles of male or female  Gilligan demonstrated sociological factors help explain differences in sense of self that boys and girls usually develop  Boy are more difficult to raise when it comes to discipline, physical safety, and school- Girls are more difficult to raise when it comes to self-esteem Agents of Socialization Agents of socialization includes the following:   Families- Most important agent of primary socialization, which is process of mastering basic skills required to function in society during childhood  Schools- Increasingly responsible for secondary socialization or socialization outside the family after childhood  Conflict theories suggests schools impart hidden curriculum that teaches students what will be expected of them in larger society once they graduate o Hidden curriculum helps sustain overall structure of society with its privileges and disadvantages  Peer Groups: consist of individuals who are not necessarily friends but who are about same age and of similar status (status refers to recognized social position an individual can occupy o Help children and adolescents separate from their families and develop independent sources of identity o Are especially influential over life styling issues such as appearance social activities and dating o From middle childhood through adolescence- peer group is often dominate socializing agent  Mass Media: Have become increasingly important agents in 21st century o Mass media includes TV, radio, internet etc. o Fastest-growing mass medium is the internet allowing adolescents and adults to engage in self-socialization which involves choosing socialization influences from the wide variety of mass media offerings  Other agents: religious institutions, athletic teams, youth groups, work place etc. Resocialization and Total Institutions  Resocialization: takes place when powerful socializing agents, deliberately cause rapid change in people`s value, roles and self conception sometimes against their will o Makes important contribution to l
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