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SOC Lecture – October 9th.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Christian O.Caron

SOC Lecture – October 9 th -Bring small calculator to October 16 test *20 significant contributions on Blackboard throughout the year - Assignment under course materials on blackboard Mini lecture on movie assignment found in online lectures – instructions for mini- proposal (due Oct. 18) Should be no more than 2 pages double-spaced, can be less. Format can use sub- headings for each question **Read Making the Grade** Mini-lecture on reading/studying for some test details Mini-lecture on measures of central tendency (mean, medium, and mode) The bonds that unite: speaking of ‘we’ Looking at how individuals are brought together within larger configurations of people. How does this occur, under what circumstances and with what effects? Another way of putting it: who do we mean when we say ‘all of us’, ‘we demand’, and ‘we would agree’. Who is the ‘we’? Social groups  a collection of two or more people who interact frequently with each other and share a sense of belonging. Can also say they are composed of set of people who identify with one another, and adhere to defined norms, roles, or statuses Examples: Members of a family, sports team, or college Primary groups  groups where norms, roles, and statuses are agreed upon but not put in writing Social interaction leads to strong emotional ties, extends over long period, and involves wide range of activities (people you have in your life for several years) Results in group members knowing one another well Example: The family (most important primary group) Secondary groups  are larger and more impersonal Involve social interaction in narrow range of activities over shorter period of time that create weaker emotional ties Example: sociology class In-group members: those who belong to a group Out-group members: those who are excluded from an in-group  In-group members typically draw boundary separating themselves from members of out-group Also try to keep out-group members from crossing the line Boundaries separating groups: Race, class, ethnicity, ability, academic talent, and physical attractiveness Network: a web of social relationships that link one person with other people and, through them, with more people that those people know. Patterns of exchange determine boundaries of the network. - Members exchange resources more frequently with one another than nonmembers, and also think of themselves as network members - Social networks may be formal (defined in writing), but are more often informal (defined only in practice) - Used to study spread of ideas or diseases across a population Organizations: social groups pursuing defined tasks are otherwise called purpose groups or organizations - Have organizational rules that members must follow - Individuals have different ‘roles’ to play within organizations - Formal organizations: large secondary groups organized to achieve goals efficiently (business corporations, government agencies, non-governmental organizations) - Three types of formal organizations: Etzioni identified three types of formal organizations, disti
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