Class Notes (806,678)
Canada (492,402)
Sociology (3,199)
SOC101Y1 (985)

SOC Lecture – November 6th.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Christian O.Caron

SOC Lecture – November 6 th Race & Ethnicity In Canada today… Canada is a diverse and complex society composed of racially and ethnically different groups. Canada is widely renowned for its cultural democracy and harmonious ethnic diversity. Significant gains have been made in the past fifty years for ‘visible’ and ‘non-visible’ minority groups in Canada However, racism is an important part of Canada’s history Vertical mosaic: Canada’s ethnic groups are vertically arranged according to income, power, and prestige Dissimilarity (occupational differentiation) and inequality (stratification) Lautard and Guppy compared 1971 to 2006 figures: concluded that ethnic stratification was less pronounced in 2006 than 1971. The level of occupation inequality between racial and ethnic groups in Canada was much smaller as time went on. Between 1931 and 2006 a decline in the significance of ethnicity occurred for both occupational differentiation and stratification Occupational differentiation: reduction of ethnic division of labour of 30% for men, and 45% for women over 70 years. Occupational stratification: reduction of 50% for men and 45% for women over 50 years. Yet, ethnic origin continues to affect occupational inequality. Race: A social construct used to distinguish people in terms of one or more physical markers. Those who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of physical characteristics such as skin colour, hair texture, and eye shape.  Research in genetics convincingly show that racial categorization based on phenotypical differences (such as facial characteristics or skin colour) do not correlate with genotypical differences (differences in genetic makeup) This leads geneticists to find race to be an “inadequate and even harmful way to think about human biological differences”  Race matters because it allows forms of social inequality to be created and perpetuated. Race matters because of how people treat one another because of it. Race matters because of power. Racialization: refers to the social and political processes by which racial groups are socially constructed based on perceived physical differences. Eugenics movement: founded on a social philosophy dedicated to improving human heredity through selective breeding for ‘desirable characteristics’. - Most famous proponent in the 20 century: Adolf Hitler - Canadian example: Alberta Sexual Sterilization Act (1928) 4725 sterilizations approved between 1929 and 1972. Ethnicity: An ethnic group is a collection of people distinguished, by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics Ethnic groups often share: 1. Unique cultural traits, such as language, clothing, holidays, or religious practices 2. A sense of community 3. Ascribed membership from birth 4. Territoriality or the tendency to occupy or identify with a distinct geographic area Ethnicity can provide a sense of identity and belonging, although not everyone identifies with any one specific ethnic group. Census (2006)  Census is a political tool. It can be a useful tool when it generates data that help to shape public policy for the benefit of the country’s citizen.  But it can also serve more subversive – and in some cases unabashedly racist – political agendas  Both Canadian and American censuses allow a fair degree of choice. US asks all respondents to identify their “race”, the Canadian form asks respondents to identify their “ethnic or cultural origins”, as well as those of their ancestors. Demography  More than 200 different ethnic or cultural origins of respondents’ ancestors More than 5 million Canadians, over 16% of country’s population, identified themselves as members of visible minorities. Canadian Employment Equity Act defines visible minority as ‘persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in color.’ Major regional differences in distribution in Canada 96% of members in Canada’s visible minority live in big cities (population rate is 68%) 43% of Toronto and 42% of Vancouver’s population are visible minorities. Labels, Identity, and Symbolic Interaction  Symbolic interactionists suggest development of racial and ethnic labels as well as ethnic and racial identities, is typically a process of negotiation  Members of a group may have racial or an ethnic identity, but outsiders may impose new label on them  Group members then reject, accept, or modify label  Negotiation between outsiders and insiders eventually results in crystallization of new, more or less stable ethnic identity.  If social context changes again, negotiation process begins anew Ethnic and Racial Labels: Imposition versus Choice  Idea that race and eth
More Less

Related notes for SOC101Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.