Reading for Next Week
* from a speech by Weber in 19 century, Post-war Germany. Focusing on
political and cultural disorientation.
* “Vocation” was translated from the word „beruf‟ which had religious
connotations at the time, meaning calling towards a higher calling.
* “Political Power”.. stop there.
* Politics as a vocation vs. Science as a vocation
* Political disorientation --> getting Germany in WW1 --> consequences of loss of
blood, property --> damage of German prestige.
* 1918, a year after Russia revolution --> some thoughts that Germany should be
* Beruf --> religious --> duty of God. Beruf - means calling in the eyes of God,
way to achieve salvation, has religious connotation, towards a higher calling)
* Weber surprise his audience by him Down to the Earth question.
* His Defines of States (79) Memorize! Test! Someone else defined it, and
Weber has agreed. ---> “Why do men obey?”
-- “every state is founded on force.” -- Trotsky
-- A state is a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use
of physical force within a given territory. Note that “territory” is one of the characteristics of the
-- At the present time, the right to use physical force is ascribed to other institutions or to
individuals only to the extent to which the state permits it.
-- The state is considered the sole source of the „right‟ to use violence. Hence, „politics‟ for us
means striving to share power or striving to influence the distribution of power, either among
states or among groups within a state.
- If no social institutions existed which knew the use of violence, then the concept of „state‟ would
be eliminated, and a condition would emerge that could be designated as „anarchy‟无政府状态,
in the specific sense of this word.
- Force is not the normal or the only means of the state -- nobody says that -- but force is a
means specific to the state.
- Today the relation between the state and violence is an especially intimate one.
* 3 different forms of authority (Test!) Name the 3 forms and distinguish them!
Show up on test. Take notes down.
* In principle, there are three inner justifications, hence basic legitimations合法化 of domination.
1) The authority of the „eternal yesterday‟: i.e. of the mores sanctified through the unimaginably
ancient recognition and habitual orientation to conform. --> this is „traditional‟ domination
exercised by the patriarch and the patrimonial prince of yore 昔日.
2) The authority of the extraordinary and personal gift of grace (charisma), the absolutely
personal devotion信仰/奉献 an personal confidence in revelation显露, heroism, or other
qualities of individual leadership. --> this is „charismatic‟ 超凡魅力的/神赐能力的domination, as
exercised by the prophet or -- in the field of politics -- by elected war lord, the plebiscitarian国
民投票 ruler, the great demagogue煽动政治家, or the political party leader.
3) There is domination by virtue of „legality,‟ by virtue of the belief in the validity of legal statute法
规 and functional „competence‟权限,资格 based on rationally created rules. --> In this case,
obedience is expected in discharging statutory obligations. This is domination as exercised by the modern „servant of the state‟ and by all those bearers of power who in this respect
* Weber agrees of Russia revolutionary. Bureaucracy.
* Weber (81) contrast the rule yesterday (feudal age) and today. In the modern
system, the ruler is separate from the means of administration. Rule of
feudalism (ruler was powerful due to excelling in warfare, control of those who
* Pp. 81 --> the Status --> different status groups. Church. Weapons. Traders.
Nobility, Guildes --> The status group has their political representation. --> what
changes toward the modern political system (democracy). All of the above had
some forms of political representation in the regime of their time.
* 3 different kinds of authority: 1. Bureaucracy --> the power relations --> most
powerful one. How do you implement of things and get things done? Most
efficient. --> who is really making the policy and politics?
* Bureaucracy: Weber looks at it in terms of power relations, think it is the most
effective tool for getting things done by rulers ever invented; duties of elected
official/ politician, should take responsible for their decisions, appointed officials,
should only carry out duties, should NOT make decisions, but carry out
decisions made by appointed officials. In reality, there is a blurring of duties.
Weber interested in how politics led to leadership:
* Weber pointed out how elected and appointed officials have different
responsibilities and the extent their duties are blurred poses the question who
are making decisions for us, the elected ones, or appointed ones?
* Weber--> political machine --> cities like Chicago, NY and Boston --> different
racial groups and form their own power.
* Bureactization of the political power. --> Weber is a nationalist --> political party
is a breeding ground for the right leader of the country. (right leadership) -->
The Party leader is know and practiced how to rule their candidate in the party.
- Weber concern the social processes nations produce leaders, see parties as
breeding grounds for leaders; candidates learn leadership and organization
skills which becomes useful if candidate become leader of country.
- There is a change from traditional to charisma: view that this did not provide the
proper leadership that Germany needed at the time.
- Truly ethical politicians would weigh their actions, realize ends do not justify
* Distinction --> live front politics and those who live for politics (passion, they
want to be.)
* Ethical --> certain ideas --> Ethical of Absolute alternate ands..... seems
* Ethics of responsibility --> taking the result of ones‟ action consequences. The
price and things cost others to reach the end. Sometimes the end do not justify
* Focus on the Authority --> men obey because they believe the demands from
the authorities are right. Why people comply. Authority (simple)
1. Power (Definition by Weber past half)
2. Domination: the probability that the command will by obey. Subset of power
3. The conditions of obey of the command
(a) Coercion, Obey due to fear; worried that the property be damaged, and
(a) Authority, a assent --> agree there is some justice --> right for those who
that obey. Obey due to the belief in the rightfulness of the command.
-- Assent: meaning agreement is the key difference between coercion and
** Agreeing in justice, rightfulness in command
1. Legitimacy and legitimation
--> Legitimacy -- right of fulness of the authority.
1. The function of authority?
* Marx is disparaging 蔑视的 with the idea of the authority, is a mask of domination,
not a belief. Marx dismissal about authority.
* Authority can have a legitimate place in society. i.e. Lord of the Flies, make a
case for authority.
-- To provide administration
-- The alternative to anarchy
- Authority has the element of coercion, there is a blurring between where
coercion end and rightful authority begin.
Marx (3 different kinds of phases)
1. 1st Phase: relative stability and class relations
-- Marx says the dominating material force in society is at the same time
it‟s intellectual force. Those who rule as a class, rule as thinkers, regulate ideas
and production of their age.
-- Rulers are thinkers who have the power to regulate society.
-- Those who have the means of production also have the means of
1. 2nd Phase: revolution --> radical change in power relation
-- In a revolutionary phase those who led (for a time) appear to be
representatives of ALL segments of society rebelling.
* i.e. French Revolution led by members of the bourgeoisie, their allies consists of French peasantry, urban poor, workers, different social categories ally with
bourgeoisie to rebel against old regime; what emerges is a set of regimes which
uphold bourgeoisie interest first; Yet during the revolution, bourgeoisie turns
itself a representation of All other segments, because what they have is a
-- Marx is pointing to a psychological mechanism in which a class can gain
ascendancy 统治 (agreement) in revolution that goes against the ruling class, key
is to depict their interest as IF they are the interest of ALL those who are
-- Ideas that actually serve the ruling class are spin as something of a
common ideology even though other classes suffer under this system.
-- Pushing forward those interests because they seem appealing and are
believed to represent the entire revolutionary group
1. 3rd Phase: Socialism
-- Classless, class domination ends
-- The ideas that only represent partial classes ends
-- To Marx, ideologies - ideals that only serve one segment of society,
so in socialism, end of ideologies.
Material and power interest first, then ideas follow;
i.e.Ideals of honor a result of maintaining material and power interest.
* Material interests and power interests.
* The power comes first and the ideas come next.
* 1st Face: The Dominate form of society is also intellectual society -->
distribution of ideas of their age.
* 2nd Face: those who lead the revolution, representative of all .......
* The bourgeoisie does not make the revolution alone, they have alliance. (urban
poor, workers) ---> bourgeoisie produce a new idea that make them the
representative of all the classes.
* psychological mechanism --> how the class become the new ruling class -->
make themselves as the representative of all the society‟s interests. ----> In
Canada, the democracy and capitalism --> we believe in competitions and
achievement (same as American Dream), it is the idea of ruling class --> but
people who born in rich families are winners in the competitions despite the
meaning of society.
* The plan that the certain class represent a partial interest will be disappeared.
Authority and Public Opinion
1. Enlightenment: (十八世纪欧洲的）启蒙运动 * A Time: 1700 in Europe
- a time that growing desire that human affairs govern by reason --> a time of
superstitions, prejudice. ---> increasing call of freedom of thought
- increasing opposition to church, monarchy, nobility, increasing call for freedom
of thought and freedom from arbitrary authority, authority not justified.
* A process
- Process: a movement toward greater freedom --> freedom of individual to fulfill
the individual perfectibility. --> people born with talent, you can make fruit out of
it by the right time. --> faith and reason.
- fulfill individual‟s potential, people born with potential that can be made fruitful in
- greater freedom on societal level, allow people to dispose of themsel