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Gender and Sexuality.docx

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Robert Lewis

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Gender and Sexuality 10/24/2012 8:08:00 AM Berger and Luckmann 11966 Humans have underdeveloped Instincts Humans require symbolic systems to compensate for lack of instincts -human behavior a lot more complicated than animal -in place of instinct we use culture to make sense of world -guide us though the world what is culture? -sum of socially transmitted ideas, practices, and material ovjects that people create. Gives us guidelines for how to think and act -born into it, not aware of it -e.g air we breathe - seems natural to us, the way things are -blind to our own culture, takes different experience (e.g. going to different country, reading history) outsider opinion then we look into our own culture -same with gender -assume human come in two sexes- male and female -sex is not artifact of culture ) e.g French soup for French people) -assume ONLY male and female exist in different cultures or in history -no different between male and femal biologically, not every human is clearly male or female -chromosomes or reproductive organs of both genders -intersex, combination of female and male genetalia -not all people born into sex have the same identity  enter world, feel more like opposite gender -e.g someone assigned female bc biologically female but feel more like male transgender, someone whose gender identity does not match with biological gender third gender not male or female -culture very limted -only two options -anything outside of that, seen as problematic -traditionally think wrongly about people falling outside of male, female gender -make and female ideology -ideology routed in cultural constructions not in nature -things we assume are natural attribute to nature -actually socially constructed called misrecognition -do not see social construction, pinning it to nature sex ideology bc culturally produced Native -three gnders -two spirits or berdache -born male but wear clothes of women and do work of women and married men -became men -weren’t regarded as women -not transitioned into female category -seen as part male and part female -a third gender, our culture does not have space for -native culture allow third gender, gave special role berdache India -Hijra born male but strong identity with females -wear clothing or makeup as women - have sex with only male -castration to become Hijra Travesti -born male but appear feminine -to act feminity of brazilan culture, appearance achieved by injecting silicon to appear like a biological female -not interested in being female -only appear female -all have intact penises and want to keep their female -no conflict with appearing as women having sex with men but keeping penis -not male not female, they are a third gender Reason we find hard to believe because of ethnocentrism -judging someone else’s culture by standards of our own -other culture seem irrational -judging other cultural forms through the lenses of our own culture Adam and Eve -our own culture two sexes and gender -seem like nature not culture -anthropology proves more genders than out culture allow for -our culture tell us about gender how does culture transfer the idea only two gender and sexes -how do we train people to believe that -do this through Barbie dolls -first modern doll modeled after adult -Barbie trademark worth millions of dollars -barbie is an artifact of our culture what does Barbie tell us about culture and gender -particular ways girls and females act - social construction of how girls become women -what does barbie tell us about what women are -body image - white skin, blonde hair, blue eyed -eventually changed with “black” -always thin waist -barbie 14’, 18’ 32’, 110lbs, could not walk -not humanly possible figure - body Barbie has is “ideal” but unable to attain - girls want to be slim, white and appeal to men with pretty dresses - aspire to look like Barbie but not literally look like her - some want to look exactly like Barbie - many women nt gone that far, but wrapped up in some way in influence of Barbie -barbie have thousands of accessories -women are to be things that are observed -beautiful objects, active consumers, shop to get these things -ken has no special clothing or accessories -boy toys are called action figures -have stereotypical male roles -gender is not born but we learn from early on sink into our habitus - class habitus also gender habitus -gender is not something you are but rather you do West& Zimmerman -gender is not a set of traits but something people do in social interactions Gender is not omnirelevant bc you cannot avoid having your gender assessed by others throughout interaction -judging when interacting with you -see human being, subconsciously assess if male or female -if person is not clearly male or female status -then people panic, unsettling feeling -want to the sex, have to know the sex - can’t know they shut down interaction - we perform gender, we do it, dress it act it -we show other what sex we are to make people feel better -do not want to perform gender properly, then accountability structure indiv groups or institutions that sanctions our behavior, including negative for behavior that does not conform for that norm -e.g boy act girly, peers buly him way of saying you are not conforming, make me feel uncomfortable, make you conform -accountability structure, do not feel like conforming, bully into becoming or confor
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