“Politics as a Vocation”: True of False?
According to Weber:
1. The state is an association that claims sovere统治权tyover a territ领域y. (p.
1. Authority is legitimate domination. (pp. 78-79)
1. Charisma is the authority of “the eternal yesterday”. (pp. 78-79)
1. In domination by virtue of legality, obedience is expected by virtue of devotion
and personal confidence in revelation, heroism, or other qualities of individual
leadership. (pp. 79)
1. Organized domination calls for control of a staff and of material means of
administration. (pp. 80)
1. States vary depending on whether those who govern own the administrative
means. (pp. 81)
1. The feudal vassa诸侯 paid out of his own pocket for the administration of his
fiefdom封地 . (pp. 81)
1. The development of the modern state involves the expropria征收onof the
autonomous 自治的 and “private” beare持票人 of power. (pp. 82)
Reading For Next Week:
Durkheim -- Suicide
(just section 2)
- Normative claim: moral authority is good.
- Empirical: observable;
- Moral is a thing that judgeable.
- Durkheim --> WHY the moral authority is good in the society.
- Descriptive explains: When the moral authority weaker, the increase of suicide rate.
- Skeleton outline of the argument: a balance between our needs and what our
environment has to offer is desirable. If the environment does not provide us
with what we need, we are in trouble.
- Animals --> needs are fairly constant.
- But in human being --> the needs change and are variable. --> There is no
- Under certain circumstances, needs of humans are limitless, have no
- To Avoid Pain --> there is necessary to put limit on human’s need. If not, human
are not capable to do so and so in the society.
- Set up moral premise: need for society to place a check limit on our own
needs, for our own good.
- Paternalistic view of society, we need society to set boundaries for use so we
can avoid pain, we can’t do this ourselves. We are incapable to place restriction
on our needs.
- Moral authority is good --> we are incapable for ourselves to put limits by
- Durkheim does not give use credit for a lot of our autonomy.
- Durkheim ties ideas of needs/ authority / unhappiness to suicide.
- Human can only limited by the authority. Right & Legitimate.
- Assumption: The limits that apply on human
- Need & Authority & Unhappiness & Suicide
- Religious in history --> put limit on people, family and other institutions do it too.
- Durkheim looks at the problem historically, in the past religion/ state/ family has
placed those restrictions.
- “appetites for material prosperity are excited” we feel like we need to have a
great deal more than we thought we needed in the past.
- He adds “restrain today seems like a sacrilege 亵渎圣物 ”. Unlimited needs are a
recipe for pain because they can never be met.
- For Durkheim, public opinion must act as moral authority, power to set limit that
people see as fair, otherwise pain and disappointment will ensure.
- Now, we should want as more as we want --> but there are pain, because they
cannot never be matched, and disappointment. --> consequences --> suicide.
- Connection to public opinion --> public opinion is a product of rational --> for
Durkheim: the appetite should be control by the public opinion as authority.
Marx and Gramsci on Ideology
A. Marx on ideas
1. Two examples:
-- believes it’s a mere ideology: he defines ideology as a false perception that masks class interest.
--Religion is a coping mechanism in a society were people are suffering
because of class domination.
-- Move towards a classless society will end the cries of the heart. suffering.
The root causes of religion will disappear.
-- So in classless society, no class oppression, so no need for church.
* the state
-- the same thing holds here
-- state = institution of false domination and will disappear.
1. Ideology = inverted ideas
2. An overlooked part of The German Ideology
- “Each new class which puts itself in the place in the one ruling for it, is
compelled simply to ....”
- If one class wants to become the new ruling class, it must show its interests as
being important to all.
- The task for revolutionary is not to focus on state or religion but to overthrow the
- relationship between social class and revolution --> Marx: revolution in France.
Class analysis. --> conclusion --> absence of class consciousness.
- Russia revolution --> dominate by peasants.
- Fanon (educated in France, in WWII against German) --> connection between
social status of nonwhite and their mental condition. He thinks he was never be
accepted because his skin color is not white.
- Line between the bourgeoisie and the peasants.
1. Marx does not believe that religion need authority, because it is just ideology.
For Marx, religious in the socie