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Race and Ethnicity.docx

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Robert Brym

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Race and ethnicity November 6 th Test – Dec 19 , 9am Race and Ethnicity in Canada Today - Canada is a diverse and complex society composed of racially and ethnically different groups - Canada is widely renowned for its cultural democracy and harmonious ethnic diversity Multiculturalism or Vertical Mosaic - Know who it was coined by - Vertical Mosaic o Canada’s ethnic groups are vertically arranged according to income, power, and prestige - Dissimilarity (occupational differentiation - are people spread equally among jobs in context of race and ethnicity) and inequality (stratification – are there any groups that are over represented in high income jobs versus others) - Lautard and Guppy compared 71 and 06 figures o Concluded that ethnic stratification was less pronounced in 06 than in 71 o Between 31 and 06 a decline in the significance of ethnicity occurred for both occupational differentiation and stratification o Occupational differentiation: reduction of ethnic division of labour of 30% for men and 45% for women over 70 years o Occupational stratification reduction of 50% for men and 45% for women over 50 years - Yet, ethnic origin continues ti affect occupational inequality Race: does it exist? Have been biological arguments but research in genetics convincingly show that racial categorization based on phonotypical differences (such as facial characteristics or skin color) do not correlate with genotypic differences (differences in genetic makeup) Social Construction of Race - Race o A social construct used to distinguish people in terms of one or more physical markers, such as skin colour, hair texture, or eye shape  For example, usually with profound effects on their lives o Race matters because it allows form os social inequality to be created and perpetuated o Race matters because of how people treat one another because of it o Race mattes because of power Race Matters - Racialization o Refers to the social and political processes by which racial groups are socially constructed based on perceived physical differences - Eugenics movement o Founded on the social philosophy dedicated to improving human heredity through selective breeding for ‘desirable’ characteristics o Lead of the Nazi party in Germany o Canadian example: Alberta sexual sterilization act Race and ethnicity November 6 th Ethnicity - An ethnic group in a collection of people distinguished by others or by themselves, primarily on the bass of cultural or nationality characteristics - Often share o Unique cultural traits (language, clothing, holidays, or religious practices) o A sense of community o Ascribed membership from birth Census - Gather information about that makeup of a particular country - Political tool o Allows to see landscape of all different kinds of information o Can be useful tool when it generates data that help to shape public policy for the benefit of the country’s citizens o Positive impact if used for public policy o Negative have more control over certain groups - US census specifically ask for race - Canada not asked about race but ethnicity (what are the variety of ethnic backgrounds that your ancestors have) Demography - Information about the population Visible Minority - Canadian employment equality act defines visible minority as persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in color - Diversity usually concentrated in big cities Race and Ethnicity Relations Labels, Identity, and Symbolic Interaction - Ethnic identity process of negotiation o Back and forth shifting of identity on basis of you choices and
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