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Social Stratification.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

rd th SOC101 – October 23 /24 , 2013 Lecture 6/7 – Social Stratification (Brym) Dyad – a group consisting of two interacting people Status – a recognized position in a social interaction (women usually occupy inferior status, men greater status than women) (laughter unevenly distributed among statuses in a dyad) Downward humor - as you go down in status likelihood of light hearted humor decreases - Laughter is not as spontaneous as we think, there is a social interaction/obligation - Signal social status, gender inferiority - Marginalize those who are different make us feel better, enforces a hierarchy Rape culture - Legitimizing rape and rape like conduct - Instances and areas where rape culture exists rape itself is at its highest - Men who are degrading to women have a greater probability to commit a sexual assault Social stratification on an everyday - Create this inequality and make sure that some people are on the top and some people are at the bottom of the chain - Hierarchy exists, we’re apart of them, and we help to create them and recreate them with our actions and words - Tend to brush off instances of it saying its ok Social stratification - The layering of unequal categories of people in society - Students of stratification study 1. The structure and shape of inequality 2. The movement of people between layers 3. How and why these dimensions of inequality vary over time and place 4. The micro level, the everyday interactions that reinforce or subvert social hierarchies Is social stratification, the layering of society into different groups, necessary? Is it inevitable? Davis and Moore - A judge is more important because a judges work contributes more to society than a janitor - More education needed and decisions of the job affects people lives - Consequence o Have to motivate people somehow to do well in education and legal career before someone can become a judge o Extended time have to pay tuitions and books o Have to forgo some things in order to become a judge rd th SOC101 – October 23 /24 , 2013 Lecture 6/7 – Social Stratification (Brym) o Janitor does not have to do any of these things to become a janitor o More sacrifices to become a judge - Compensate judges for years of hard work in education and forgoing social living by paying them more The Functional Theory of Stratification - Some jobs are more important than others - Jobs that are more important require more training and sacrifice - To motive talented people to undergo training and sacrifice high rewards must be offered - Therefore stratification is necessary; it performs a useful function Institutions could not have existed without manual workers - Historically the peasant more important because they made it possible for professionals to exists Criticism of the Functional Theory of Stratification - The question of which occupation are more important is far from clear - The function theory ignore the pool of talent that lies unused because of inequality o Smart kid who is poor (gap between rich and poor) o Immigrant who was a doctor but is now a taxi driver - The functional theory fails to examine how advantages and disadvantages are passed from generation to generation Feudal society - Economic system that developed in the wake of the collapse of the roman empire - All of Europe and part of Africa and middle east - Peasants agreed to contracts with the war lords o Peasants gave/sell certain proportion and give this proportion of produce and money to the war lords for protection o The war lords were the welfare state of the peasants o No movement of peasants (chained to the land) (no mobility) (legal binding) - Increase in demand of good and services, commerce and agriculture navigation led to collapse of feudal system  Wasn’t enough labour to produce what was needed  Increase demand of commercial and manufactured goods  Peasants couldn’t build or make these things because they were bound to the land  Women and children first used for manufacturing labour - Enclosure movement o Peasants freed from ties from land and moved to where the factories where rd th SOC101 – October 23 /24 , 2013 Lecture 6/7 – Social Stratification (Brym) o New class emerged – wage laborers  People legally freed to be hired and fired Karl Marx theory of stratification - The ability of capitalists to hire and fire wage workers at first encouraged rapid technological change and economic growth - The drive for profits also caused capitalists to concentrate many workers, keep low wages, and spend little on improving working conditions - The result: class polarization, the growth of class consciousness and working class organizations and a growing demand of the part of workers to end capitalists exploitations - Because capitalism could produce more than workers could consume, ever worsening crises of overproduction would result in the fall of capitalism - Adam smith – division of labour (specialization) - Elite and efficient capitalist push the lower capitalist into the proletariat – the working class (bogoirgises – rich capitalists) - If you keep the poor very poor they will remain poor and recognize that they have the same enemy and are of the same class and will take action against the upper class (form unions and fight against capitalist) - Poor won’t be able to consume what is produced in factories (surplus of goods) (crises of over production and over consumption) (economic d
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