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March 12 Soc of Education.docx

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Christian O.Caron

March 12, 2014 Sociology of Education How schools connect to society - 3 ways: 1. Through selection (process by which the structure of schooling feeds into broader patterns social inequality 2. Through socialization (schools pass along values and knowledge) 3. Through social organization (schools affect how we learn and help define different types of occupations) Informal and Formal Education - Informal – learning that occurs in spontaneous, unplanned way – from parents, other group members - Formal – learning takes place within an academic setting, such as a school, planned instructional process, and teachers who convey specific knowledge, skills, and thinking processes to students. Mass education - Education system has displaced organized religion or family as main purveyor of formal knowledge - Second in importance to family as agent of socialization - Universal mass education recent phenomenon limited to relatively wealthy country History - 300 yrs ago: most illiterate - 100 yrs ago: majority didn’t attend school - 1950: 10% world countries only had compulsory mass education - Today: half citizens in developing countries are illiterate. In Canada, education is nearly universal Canadian education - Although access remains uneven, Canadian accomplishments are impressive when compared with that of other countries - 2009, Canadian students ranked 4 out of 65 countries in reading, math… - Canada has 16,000 elementary & secondary, 276,000 teachers who educated 5.3 million children and have an enrollment rate of about 95% - 2008-9 university enrollment 1.11million - 49% people 25-64 have a college or university degree (highest in the world) Uniform Socialization - Creating systems of education that had sufficient resources to include all children was social change of breathtaking scope - Religious training was never widely available and tended to set people apart from the community - Replacing these forms of instruction with centralized and rationalized system created strong pressures toward uniformity and standardization - Diversity gave way to homogenized indoctrination into common culture Rising Levels of Education - Amount education people receive has gone up - Educational attainment and educational achievement - Achievement – skills you pick up, what grade reflect - Attainment – number years of education completed, amount degrees/certificates Individual Advantages and Disadvantages - Higher education – more employment and higher earnings - Educational attainment linked with prosperity Factors that led to rise of mass education: - Printing press – enabled literacy - Protestant reformation- encouraged to read scriptures - Spread of democracy – free education for children - Industrialization – education necessity for creating industrial economy National wealth - Investment in education is important step in great national wealth - Education not only source of wealth; also product of wealth Functions of Education Manifest (intended functions): - Homogenize future citizens by indoctrination into common culture - Gellner: mass education basis for modern nationalism – humanity divided limited number populations defined by common culture, territory… - Common culture allows for imagined community – creating sense of belonging - Sort and steer students to different class positions as adults Latent (or unintended) functions: - Create youth culture - Create marriage market – facilitates assortative mating - choosing a mate who is similar to oneself on various ranking criteria - Create custodial and surveillance system for children - Create means of maintaining wage levels by keeping postsecondary student temporarily out of job market - Occasionally creates “school of dissent” that opposes authorities Sorting into classes and hierarchies: Conflict Perspective - Notion of power, who benefits… Challenges functionalist view and claims: - Economic barriers filter on basis of ability to pay - Many jobs require academic credentials that are questionable as job skills but are ef
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