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SOC101Y1 (985)


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Christian O.Caron

SOC448H1s— Week #2—January 16, 2014 Evolutionary theory — surviving and reproducing • Why do we have more negative primary emotions than positive? o Turner argues that there are more negative emotions because, for one, humans evolved from apes, negative emotions created social Turner maintains that shame, guilt and alienation are a mixture of the three negative primary emotions—sadness, fear, anger—He terms ‘second-order elaborations’ Shame and Guilt= Social Control • Shame—is the emotion of feeling inadequate and small because one has not met expectations (norms) for how to behave in a situation o Re-integration • Guilt—not lived up to moral codes of right-wrong, good-bad, appropriate-inappropriate, and other labels that define morality o Shame is internal (self) vs. guilt is rule breaking (consequences). • Alienation—sense of disaffection from others, social structures, and their cultures o Blame others o Perceived, as further proof, that the individual has problems “Your alienation is your problem, not a problem of society” Repression: Unconscious memories Why would you repress shame? —The emotion is avoided because it is a self-reflection, repressing this anger can sometimes lead to externalization, pushing it out and placing it onto a weaker party. Understanding these emotions as a social problem, rather than mental health issue Defense Mechanisms— 2 Levels of repression • Defense strategies: • Secondary defense mechanisms o Interpersonal and cognitive strategies to protect themselves DEFENSE STRATEGIES— Quick fixes to awkward situations • Selective perception: defensive strategy that enables a person to see a situation in a way that protects self w/o high degrees of repression • Selective Interpretation: involves putting an interpretative twist on the signals emitted by others so as to protect self… I.e. Man gets rejected and thinks that she is just i.e. “Playing hard to get” • Disavowals: questioning the creditability or the importance of the others who’ve aroused –ive emotions. I.e. “Not being myself” • Short-term credit: Use of past positive experiences to “ride it out”—and draw upon past experiences to evoke a positive memory to lessen the current negative emotions SECONDARY DEFENSE MECHANISMS—channelling emotions towards different targets Repression is the master defense mechanism • Displacement—displaces negative emotion away from self onto other individuals o Repressed anger is the m
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