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Sociology lecture 2: Culture
Many athletes all have some practice or “rituals” for good luck, and they aren’t
the only ones.
Most social practices are done for the pur pose of helping solve some kind of a
Culture is the sum of socially transmitted ideas, practices, and material objects
that people create to overcome real-life problems. Culture gives us guidelines for
how to act.
A society exists when people interact and share culture, generally in a
geographically delimited area.
Social practice must be transmitted from people to people, and generation to
generation. It must be widely accepted and having fulfilled a social need before it
is considered culture.
Ethnocentrism involves judging another culture exclusively by the standards of
Cultural relativism is the belief that all elements of all cultures should be
respected as equally valid.
Culture contradicts itself because it frees us and also restricts us in a way.
Globalization of culture has given us the opportunity of choosing certain
elements of cultures that we like.
Postmodernism involves: the eclectic mixing of cultural elements from different
times and places, the erosion of authority, and the decline of consensus around
Rationalization is the application of the most eff icient means to achieve given
goals and the often unintended, negative consequences of doing so.
A bureaucracy is a large, impersonal organi zation composed of many clearly
defined positions arranged in a hierarchy. It has a permanent, salaried staff of
qualified experts and written goals….
Consumerism is a lifestyle that involves defining one’s self in terms of the goods
We don’t like to be unique from others because when we stand out we may be
seen as outcast and be alienated.
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