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Course Code
Irving Zeitlin

of 4
Use the hypothetical construct, most radical philosphes advocated democracy, 1st task
address nature of human nature, dis on hum, we were infin maluble cant be molded
without consqeucnce rosseasu nature of human nature, different, spring time on earth,
agress with montesqui social laws, ignorance and error misinterpret with at odds nature,
make mistakes can correct them we do have certain degrees of freedom contignecy,
Laws modern physics, logic behavior is determined by external causes certain devince
predict mutitulde, here not external casue but internal one means to and end doing what
hope to do in future atoms pushed from behind we are being pulled, debate dtereminism
and free will agree we all have morally sig choices, morally sig not all neautral moral sig
and consequene
Rosseu france at the time royal absolutism 3 pillars church nob and monarchy do and
thinkmontesqieu face censorship
Accuses hobbes left in tact certain social attributes, such as war rossua cit before soldier,
warriors though socilaztion, killers by nature no need to draft, strip us down to original
nture pre lang, cult,
How do u do it in no where humans live outside society or ever has, through logical
reasoning and by animals and savages
Thought exp two principals, pure nature no social att, preservation and aversion witnessing
suffering of sentient creature alive and suffer averse circumstances, 3rd not necessary
associations problematic bc, wolves create problem for himself, feel and suffer not ill treat
them, bountiful food shelter no scarcity and children adapt easily, difference humans ability
self improvent or perfectablity how does it emerge need ability to reason strive to no things
live well and enjoy them, latent no need for other capacities, no social qaulityes no ass no
language cult no fam
Males females meet desire and goes own way, saem child and mother allows cries to beg for
help suggests enough sociablity prompt to aid other individuals have pity and compassion
enough to come to aid of others, denies soc no mutual needs like monkey or wolf its own
kind cont or not know enough, island onto himself, all have mutual needs sat mutual aid
and cooperation, why come down geological disaster, how did we become bipeds structure
spine change whole body change, small and weak had to compensate Darwin mutual aid is
good ants what rossue is saying lone indi is problematic
Wolves not instinct for hunting but capacity to learn how to hunt from parents never know
how to do it like this in every species
Mutual need to mutual aid not deny to humans, hobbes naturally evil not true, not reading
carefully in sate of nature is scarcity willing to fight not mean evil, ones own preservation
not prej to another so bountiful why they would fight savages protecting themselves then
harming others problematic man women reln phy no moral element sites savages
Soon perfect balance is upset problem challenge hobbes, epoch first rev rise to family have
conj love stable reln conflict emerges with society not before, 2 different conflcts rosseau org
warfare cit before soldier lot of learning becoming soldier no need military training
Civil state established war in natural sate adopt civil state, rossue cited revolution was
necessary, some mutual need asymetricla becuas eof power rln contract obscured
unreasonable hobbes either or, undivided agree not agree with free or ruled, be both citizins
and subjects part democracy, 13 states all governed by majority elected by everyone,
everyone participated simulatonasoly cit and subjects
Cit act actively once elected leaders become subjects and obey them or until next election no
reason why life prop liberty secured in society contrast hobbes contract ros like lockes and
mont est body politic through contract by ppl leaders chosen by them both obey laws law
charter constitution, one reg election and limited autortiy of chief magistrate, early works of
hobbes orig democracy exited through democratic means talk first way did it but cant
another group must resort to ext strong man or yield, power granted conditionally,
Social contract similar to lockes against traditional views argue against hugo Grotius might
is right exiting state of nature if conflict in war if vixtors allow ppl to live right to slave life
for liberty ppoint ancient abuses rosseu disagress fund unjust war is over no reason to kill,
freedom one alienate owns not another renounce freedom renounce will, gotius slave ben for
both parties rosseu no right just inslavement slavry means state of war con, form no one
follows someone else both cit and subject,
The populace is soverign, so soverign absolute undived pardox follwong locke and montesqiu
need diveided gov to keep sov, talking about monarchy hobbes, rosseu aboot ppl have to have
checks and balances
Roosue large complex society monte checks and balances, demo small few 100 general will
soverign will meets frequently, states demo large, federalist persuade how to do it, gov
divedided to keep sov of ppl; republic gov to ppl not ppl to gov, Machiavelli prince for
republican not rulers
Prevent tyranny frequent meetings and internal vidulence
13 american colonies, indep sovering states own miltia and navy, created an expediaent or
confederation to temp unite them succeed in revolution, fed rec after rev need for central
national government after war confredaertaional congess and power returned to the states,
hamiltion Madison hjay need for central gov, rely on classical theory and history and
thinkers we have learned very sociallogical approach of power and how distributed, no built
in way of them going against the others, antifed against central power and create new one
highly civilized affair, became fed papers, antifed
Federalist papers published in newspapers and common reader comprehend them used
common pseudonym roman hero who established democracy after tarquin last king of rome,
rosseau part democracy, Madison wanted rep gov of represt, enter monte recognized
imperial power to small cant form power to large like rome to bigh to many vices, Hamilton
et al inethicacy of current sit without central gov, cont at that time occupied foreign powers,
Britain what if as we know it all united and one navy what sit would it be if all had there
own, basing on history and classilcal ideas, 1 or 2 others come to aid couldnt count on that,
ancient Greece polypenisian war Sparta and athen same religion not unify
The antifeds feds look for peace and look at history and antifeds not right, separate states
struggle to claim more territory such as Wyoming more destructive then in Europe no
fortifications how war each against all be prevented Madison central gov control strife over
property freed in large place than republic like mach said and monte did in large complex
soc common power strive dynamic equil diverse classes rosseua hard to prevent no checks
and balances had to have authority over ind not over state, eventually did the slave states
succed from union 600000 fatalities, used ancient Greece Persian greel war before
polypenisian war and grece sided with Persia. Jefferson no fed agreed anti danger tyranny
in existing cond no limits on power 194-195
Mult can be wiser better than few, vulnerable ideological to believe things contrary own
Patrick henry, didnt believe revolution came to Canada, yield to antifedrealist 10
amentdent to constitution bill of rights antifed contribution
Rossue contribution the meal
He becomes parent of boy from infant to manhood nothing more important then education
Differences in sexes deifernt ways of compulsion, man born free but everywhere in chains,
mothers refusing take care of young mothers raise own chikdren imanginary pupil ameile
clothes free moving, pains some casued by things most often caused by others through
injustice, not do good everyone can not hurt anyone phys or ment rig excerices advocates