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SOC101Y1 (985)

work and family

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University of Toronto St. George
Paul Glavin

SOC207H1F November 23, 2011 Work and Family Demographic Changes: • Age , Diversity, Education, Labour force participation, Gender • Wrong assumptions about immigrants “taking their jobs” • Having a lot of immigrants not a bad thing but actually good for the economy (more consumers, more demands  more jobs) • Labour force participation increased (entry of women) o The pressure of having dual income because of the decrease in income of male worker. It has become an economic necessity Work and Family • Changes in the organization of work => changes in the family • Separation of work and family a recent phenomenon • Household work essential for operation of Fordism o Assumption of work-family work structure as having a male wage worker and a female doing all housework o Family wage ideology (male wage should be enough to support the family o Women were vital cause their housework allowed males to participate in the labour force but it was taken for granted o downplayed and undervalued Rise of Fordism => Family Erosion of Fordism => Family Paid and non-paid Work In order to understand work-family issues, we must first understand: 1) the difference between paid and non-paid work 2) how work and family, and specifically, paid and non-paid work, are gendered • Non-Paid Work o Definition of “work/labour” o Distribution and economic value of non-paid work  Non-paid child/elder care meaning non paid work is prevalent  Difficult to assign a wage or value to it because it is connected to our personal relationships. We do it for love and other practical reasons. Plus, it happens indoors in private where no one from the outside could really see. Gender differences: empirical evidence If given a dollar value, unpaid work would increase GDP by c) a third A single man who marries his (paid) housekeeper would a) reduce GDP "Women do two-thirds of the world's work, receive 10 percent of the world's income, and own 1 percent of the means of production" Richard H. Robbins Mass Entry of Women into Labour Force • 2008: 47% of labour force are women, 53% men • Why? o Economic necessity o Delayed childbearing – availability of birth control pill in 1960s o Increasing educational levels o Separation/Divorce push women into paid work • Hochschild’s “stalled revolution” • Gender role stereotypes continue to influence Question Unequal distribution of household labour: Why have things not changed with the mass entry of women into the labour force? Argument 1: women’s work in the household is determined by their lack of paid employment. Argument 2: house
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