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Fertility issue: long-term downward trend has never stopped since 1960s
Development of contraceptive technologies
Birth control became legal in 1969 and abor tions no longer criminal nowadays
30% of all births is induced abortion since late 1990s (1/5 per formed on 25-29 years)
Entering parenthood
Following some habitual, cultural, and religious values
12% of no religious affiliated women expect to stay childless
Immigrant women higher TFR
Aboriginal women very high TFR than native ones
Cost/benefit analysis of childbearing
Financial and economic stability cause women to delay childbearing into their 30s
Disadvantage for working moms compared to childless women in wages
This is even more serious among high educated women (negative correlation btw
Personal growth, development, transfor ming of self, especially for women: way to solve
identity problem
Negative effects of transition to parenthood on mar r iage
Marital satisfaction declines
Spousal conf lict increases
Unmet expectations of equally shared housework (increased womens role)
How has marit al relationship been transfor med by parenthood?
Childbearing: perceived as a private thing without much support
Womens disadvantages in the labor market relative to men
Popular ideology of mothering: convention that babies are best cared for at home, by
Turning point for marital relationship = new pattern
Gendered: men as breadwinner, women as housekeeper
Reduce pressure when support from grandparents is effectively given; but more unequal
gendered division is produced unless the father is encouraged to actively participate in
housework and childcare
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