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Work and Families

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Work & Families (July 6)
For Exam:
Different modes of work & family connection (different models)
Know basic arguments of Hoschild (new models and old models)
Men and womens changing participation of paid work
Since the 1960s, the employment rates for men and women converged in OECD countries
Slightly declining rate for men and dramatically increasing rate for women
The main increase in womens employment and self-employment has been among married women
and mothers
Mens declining rate can be attributed to prolonged schooling, more non-standard work and earlier
Womens increasing rate is partially due to the rising living costs, more service jobs for women (not
required manual work), better education opportunities, fewer pregnancies and ideological change
Work and marital happiness
There was little connection between the fact that women had jobs and the marital satisfaction they and
their husbands felt
When husbands work long hours and have high level of job-related stress, relationship with their wife
and children suffer
When individuals work night and rotating shifts, their marriages were at greater risk for separation
because of the physical and social stress those work imply
Yet, another study suggests that it was not the night or rotating shifts, rather, the household
responsibilities that connect to marital dissatisfaction
Conflicting role expectations
Especially for women, if they stay at home, they are seen as failing to live up to their potentials
If they work outside, however, they are criticized for neglecting their children
The expectations of employers and fellow employees may be anti-family and regard long hours and
job transfer as natural without thinking about
Conflicts between work and family at two levels
Role spillover or role interference : the time-crunch
i.Never enough time and energy to accomplish all they wish to in either family or work roles, either
in daily basis or in terms of general goals
ii.Difficulties over schedule conflicts, shift work, frequent travel and long hours
Role overload or role strain : perceptions of an individual = overwhelmed and overstressed
Balancing the demands of work and family
In general, people report negative work-to-family effects, although positive influences are possible
In Canada, about 40% report moderate role interferences from jobs in meeting family responsibilities
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