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SOC304H1-Lec 4

18 Pages

Course Code
Charles Jones

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Mobility of Whole Social Strata Also MigrationSome Big Picture Cases of Societal Transformation Conclusions We need to expand Gladwells account because social mobility is affected by large scale historical changesMacroeffects that typically have losers and winners as some families become downwardly mobile and others rise to take their placesExamples include depressions hyperinflationary periods regime changes such as end of Apartheid in RSA Civil Rights Act in USA etcGovernment policies can affect life chancesAffirmative Action legislationexecutive orders in the United States was followed by improvement of fortunes for new Black college graduates though not for older onesEqualizing opportunity can have a strong effect on those entering the job market without affecting fortunes of older birth cohorts whose members continue to suffer from consequences of discriminatory practices in place over previous decades AnnouncementsNext lecture as well as in tutorials we look at how sociologists have used Occupation as an indicator of social statusThis is highly relevant for those students who will do the Occupational Genealogy assignmentAssigning quantitative scores to occupations is part of the status attainment approach One such scoring system is called the Socioeconomic index SEI This is one of the Occupational Standing variables in the IPUMSUSA series of Census data filesOur discussions of social mobility can be a bit parochialDiscussions of social mobility equality of opportunity etc in Canada or US at the present time assume a stable state rule of law presence of public education etcGladwell draws many examples from US since 1930s He discusses early practice relative maturity Matthew Effect coaching practical intelligence role of standardised tests in selection etcThis lecture broadens the focus a bit to consider Big Picture of changes in other timesplaces BigSudden Changes Generate WinnersLosersRegime change by conquest or revolutionsFrenchRussian Revolutions 1789 1917Collapse of the Soviet Unionreplacement by the Russian FederationWe wanted democracy but we got capitalism Russia needs more successful young entrepreneurs therefore Governors should have more children Unless you have connections its impossible to find a job recent Moscow University graduate quoted in Financial Times July 11 2011 Russia Ascent and DissentEconomic collapse Germany 19181925Financial crises Carmen ReinhartKen Rogoff This Time Its Different Eight Centuries of Financial FollyFinancial Crises DeflationInflationDeflation ReinhartRogoff This time its different The bust that follows a speculative boom Economies shrink people lose their jobs or have wages cut prices fall farmers sell out at a loss 1930s and other Depressions i Losers people whose jobs disappear People businesses or governments that have big debts may be forced into bankruptcy iiWinners people who have savings maybe some speculatorsInflation Adam Ferguson When money dies Governments clip gold coinsreplace them with base metalspaper money print too much paper money devalue their currency default monetize their debt money loses its value Inflation often caused by wars andor government incompetence i Losers people who have savings or nonindexed wagespensions ii Winners Farmerspeople who own essential property or precious metals people businesses or governments that have big debtsmaybe some speculatorsForced Migrations in Human HistoryMany Examples of Forced migrationsTransatlantic Slave Trade in 18th Centurymovement of slave populations inland later on
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