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SOC101Y1 (985)

SOC304H1-Lec 5

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Charles Jones

Applying the Status Attainment Approach From Mobility Tables to Correlations and Path DiagramsSummary Ascribed and achievedStatus attainment approach can show group differences including cohort differences in the relative strength of various characteristics which influence occupational status and earned incomeOver this century formal education has become increasingly important for the transmission of social status between generationsexcept for Blacks in the US Summary Mechanism of status transmission has changedDirect transmission of occupational status from family of origin to the young adult son or daughter has become less importantLink between formal education and respondents occupational status has become more important universalism credentialism justification of hiring decisions by reference to transcriptstest results etc Summary Interpretations of what education doesLink between parental characteristics and the young adults amount of formal education has become more important middle class parents more likely to believe in importance of education or at least educational credentialsThus social status is still to some degree passed from one generation to another but transmission no longer as direct as before Instead transmission is partly laundered through formal education the conformity it requires the credentials it givesDo we want MeritocracyRising above your parents social position is seen a good thing But if the number of higher level positions remains constant one person going up means another going down Exchange mobilityPeopletheir families mobilize their social capital etc to resist downward mobilityA meritocracy allocates people to positions on the basis of assessed merit Are there fair ways of doing this How can they be implemented What procedures make people accept demotions as being fairIndicators of Social PositionOwning Land historical restriction of voting rights to freeholders those who have a stake in the countryOccupation or Trade Various classifications possible with important dividing lines between skilledunskilled and agriculturalmanualnonmanual forms of workQuebec City as a Frontier Town Before the ConquestThe big industry was the Fur Trade shipping etcHamel and Renaud examine intergenerational fatherson mobility of married Canadiens listed in the 1744 Census for the parish of Quebec CityConclusions that Quebec City had high social fluidity social position only loosely linked to social origin except for members of the elite and to a lesser extent for wage earnersOccupations Grouped into Social Class CategoriesWage Earners Unskilled FarmersArtisans Skilled for the Internal Market Other SelfEmployedArtisans Skilled for the External MarketElite OccupationsThe Mobility Table or Mobility MatrixUsually a square table with rows as Fathers Status Category and columns as Sons Status CategorySame set of categories used for both generations The edges margins reflect the distribution of occupational classes in each generationMarriage mobility tables have Fathers status category as rows and Husbands status category as columns This is for women only Could also be FatherinLaws status category as columns This would work for men as well as women Structural Mobility and the Margins of the Mobility TableIndustrialization causes the proportion of farm jobs to decrease and the proportion of industrialclerical jobs to increase Rising tide lifts all boatsPostindustrialization causes the proportion of industrial jobs to decrease and the proportion of service sector jobs to increaseHence some parent to child mobility must occur is structural or forced in a technical senseCan We Identify Components of Structural MobilityJoseph Kahl tried with the USA between 1920 and 1950 CensusesUpward structural mobility due to lower fertility of professionalmanagerial classes higher fertility among ruralworking classes
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