From mobility tables to correlations and path diagrams. Instead, transmission is partly laundered through formal education, the conformity it requires, the credentials it gives. Do we want meritocracy : rising above your parents" social position is seen a good thing. Indicators of social position: owning land (historical restriction of voting rights to freeholders: those who have a stake in the country , occupation or trade. Various classifications possible, with important dividing lines between skilled / unskilled and agricultural / manual / non-manual forms of work. Quebec city as a frontier town (before the conquest : the big industry was the fur trade, shipping, etc, hamel and renaud examine intergenerational (father-son mobility) of married. Occupations grouped into social class categories: wage earners, (unskilled) farmers, artisans (skilled) for the internal market other self-employed, artisans (skilled) for the external market elite occupations. The mobility table (or mobility matrix: usually a square table, with rows as father"s status category and columns as son"s.