What status attainment approaches can tell us about discrimination. Key concepts in status attainment: initial endowments , these are the resources with which people start out in life. Examples: social class of origin, parental education & occupational levels; indicators of ethnicity, race, religion, country of origin for immigrants: transformation of initial endowments into intermediate resources. Mainly formal education but also on-the-job training & seniority with the first occupation: transformation of intermediate resources into final social position ( final outcome ) Usually indicated by final occupation & employment income or household income (not the same thing, esp. for married persons) Other concepts: cohorts (also synthetic cohorts ), this means what decade you were born in, married in, and graduated in. Graduating classes are a kind of cohort: the class of 2011 : those born in 1920s, those born in 1930s, etc. Some cohorts may be lucky : others not.