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SOC101Y1 (985)
Robert Brym (148)

sociology lecture notes- class 3,4 and 6

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

Sociology class 4 socialization 2112012 65800 PMCorrelation is a concept that can have more than one value o A variableo A correlation is the relationship or association between two variables o The correlation coefficient r measures the strength of the association between two variables Its value ranges from 1 to1 with 1 indicating a perfect negative linear association 1 indicating a perfect positive linear association and 0 indicating no association Coincidenceo Events including correlations may be due to coincidence for example you may toss a coin and get heads and then toss itagain and get heads The chance of this happening isx 14common sense suggests that these successive events are likely just a coincidence o However if you tossed a coin 10 times and got all heads the chance of this happening is 1011024 This is a sufficiently rare event that we suspect the event is not due to chance o We study statistics partly to know the chance that events including correlations are likely to be real or coincidental Spuriousnesso A correlation may also be spurious or phony if it is preceded by the real cause of the correlation Statisticso We must eliminate or at least sharply reduce the chance of coincidence and spuriousness before we can conclude that a correlationo ex1 Victor the wild boy of Aveyron prevented from fully developing as a human being he was kept isolation from people and his surroundings for 4 yearsSocialization
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