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Lecture

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7 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC101Y1
Professor
Sheldon Ungar

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SOC101Y1
Week 14 – 1/19/11
Race and Ethnicity
-Dr. Morton: races that rank higher insocial hierarchy” have bigger brains -> European
-Criticisms of Morton’sSkull Study
1) identifying the race of a skull imprecise even today.
2) small, unrepresentative sample
-used African skulls that have been robbed from graves
3) controlling for sex reduces or eliminates race differences
eg. Average black female skulls actually turned out larger than female ones
-skull size does NOT equal intelligence
-stereotype: black ppl = more genetic superiority in sports
-however: most of the top runners are West African descent. But theyre not excelling at
swimming, hockey, etc.
DNA Snips
-DNA is a chemical that contains the genetic instructions for all living organisms. When
ppl have a child, the DNA of the mates combines child inherits that parent’s DNA
-DNA consists of 3 billion pairs of 4 types of molecules. Diff sequences of molecules
result in characteristics (eg. Skin colour). 99.5% of the DNA of all ppl is identicial
-remaining ……… [see powerpoint]
Comparative Genomics
-snips influence readily apparent physical differences such as skin pigmentation + less
apparent physical differences such as the capacity to absorb and utilize various
chemicals. Idenfitying snips of the latter type enables the production of “designer” drugs
that are best suited to groups w unique genetic characteristics.
-significantly, comparative genomics research focuses on diff btwn SOCIALLY distinct
groups, such as blacks + whites. Yet genetic diversity is greatest among ppl of African
origin, + genetic varation within other racial groups may be pharmacologically
significant.
Race, Biology, and Society
-theres no biological evidence that races differ in ways that explain behavioural
differences (eg. Brain studies)
-behaviourial diff btwn racial groups are not constant (eg. Group IQ scores and athletic
success vary)
-behaviourial differences btwn racial groups vary by social circumstance (eg. Upward
mobility and academic enrichment boost IQ scores; lack of opportunity for upward
mobility increases participation in professional sports.)
www.notesolution.com
Race and Ethnicity defined
-a race is composed of ppl whose perceived physical markers are socially significant
(esp in creating and maintaining systems of social inequality)
-eg. Slavery + colonialism, stereotypes
-ethnic group: composed of ppl whose percieved cultural markers are socially
significant (esp in creating + maintaining systems of social inequality
-race =biology” while ethnicity =culture
-eg. Diff in work ethnics => Jamaican/West Indies vs. Africa
Social Roots of Racism
Physical markers are used to distinguish groups and create inequality based on
race.
Different social conditions among superordinates and subordinates create
behavioral differences between them.
Perceptions of behavioral differences get embedded in culture as racial
stereotypes.
Racial stereotypes reinforce the use of physical markers to distinguish groups.
Six Degrees of Separation
Genocide: group extermination (Germans Jews)
Expulsion: forcible removal of group from a territory (W. Europeans Native
Americans)
Slavery: legal ownership of a group (W. Europeans Africans)
Segregation: spatial and institutional separation of groups (White Americans
African Americans)
Pluralism: retention of identity and equal access to basic social resources
(Canada today)
Assimilation: cultural blending of majority and minority groups (Canada today)
Factors Influencing Assimilation
Length of time in country varies proportionately with assimilation.
Socioeconomic status varies proportionately with assimilation.
Occupational segregation varies inversely with assimilation.
Current and historical discrimination (genocide, expulsion, slavery, segregation)
varies inversely with assimilation.
Canadian Research on Ethnicity, Race, and SES: a summary
www.notesolution.com

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Description
SOC101Y1 Week 14 11911 Race and Ethnicity -Dr. Morton: races that rank higher in social hierarchy have bigger brains -> European -Criticisms of MortonsSkull Study 1) identifying the race of a skull imprecise even today. 2) small, unrepresentative sample -used African skulls that have been robbed from graves 3) controlling for sex reduces or eliminates race differences eg. Average black female skulls actually turned out larger than female ones -skull size does NOT equal intelligence -stereotype: black ppl = more genetic superiority in sports -however: most of the top runners are West African descent. But theyre not excelling at swimming, hockey, etc. DNA Snips -DNA is a chemical that contains the genetic instructions for all living organisms. When ppl have a child, the DNA of the mates combines child inherits that parents DNA -DNA consists of 3 billion pairs of 4 types of molecules. Diff sequences of molecules result in characteristics (eg. Skin colour). 99.5% of the DNA of all ppl is identicial -remaining [see powerpoint] Comparative Genomics -snips influence readily apparent physical differences such as skin pigmentation + less apparent physical differences such as the capacity to absorb and utilize various chemicals. Idenfitying snips of the latter type enables the production of designer drugs that are best suited to groups w unique genetic characteristics. -significantly, comparative genomics research focuses on diff btwn SOCIALLY distinct groups, such as blacks + whites. Yet genetic diversity is greatest among ppl of African origin, + genetic varation within other racial groups may be pharmacologically significant. Race, Biology, and Society -theres no biological evidence that races differ in ways that explain behavioural differences (eg. Brain studies) -behaviourial diff btwn racial groups are not constant (eg. Group IQ scores and athletic success vary) -behaviourial differences btwn racial groups vary by social circumstance (eg. Upward mobility and academic enrichment boost IQ scores; lack of opportunity for upward mobility increases participation in professional sports.) www.notesolution.com
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