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Lecture 1

SOC101Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: System On A Chip, Social Mobility, Deskilling

Course Code
Christian O.Caron

of 6
soc lecture 8 Class:Work, and Economy
- universe of obligation
recognition of the sanctity of human life is a prerequisite to moral action
history of the 20th century has seen the call for the exclusion of whole
categories of population-classes, nations, race and religion-from the
universe of obligation
within our universe of obligation, other people’s needs, their welfare, ill heath
and dreariness of daily life constitute a challenge and an admonition to all
other members of the same universe of obligation
- income inequality in Canada
economic prosperity has made Canada one of the best countries in the world
to live in
- past quarter of a century, income inequality has been increasing in Canada
- families that works harder and longer do not necessarily have a greater
income- economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers and
ownership of property
wealth- accumulated assets
- avg Canadian income is 49k
- top 10% 100k+
- top 5% 150k+
- top 1% 250k+
median Canadian income: 32K
- explanations of Income inequality
factors in economic success:
- degree of natural talent
- degree of effort
- level of education
- social capital (people’s network or connections)
- cultural capital (stock of learning and skills that increases chance of securing
superior job)
- Income and poverty
difficult to determine degree of poverty in Canada because there is no agreed-
upon or official definition of poverty
low-income cutoff-if more than 63% of gross income is spent on food, shelter,
and clothing )varies by family and community size)
intense debate over following:
- whether definition should be n absolute or relative terms
absolute definition focuses on essentials, while relative definition may
define poverty either narrowly in terms of economic measures or more
broadly in terns of community standards
- whether poverty should be defined on basis of income or consumption
- defining poverty
definitions of poverty have political consequences because of ability to
influence policy-makers, who determine whether social policies are enacted
or not enacted based on levels and trends in poverty
politics is able to reshape distribution of income and system of equality in
various ways:
- by enacting various legislations for businesses
- by entitling people to various welfare benefits
- by redistributing income through tax policies
- by failing to either maintain or expand welfare benefits
- explaining poverty
2types of explanation:
- individual leve explanations
- structural explanation
individual-level explanation: focus on attributes of people who are poor and ask
how these people differ from those whoa re not poor
- causes of poverty are located in personal deficits such as inherited attributes
(intelligence and behaviour), or acquired attributes or stigmas ( self-
esteem, lack or achievement and motivation)
- evidence supporting these explanations often are lacking
structural explanations: stress social organization of society o subsystem in
society that contribute to poverty including:
- economy: with cyclical book and busts (periods of low unemployment, and
high profits followed by high unemployment and low profits, and lack of
good jobs
- social policy suck as minimum wage legislation\
- system of tax collection and tax allocation such as neutral taxes like GST
and fuel taxes
- idealogical perspectives: which undervalue certain groups (of people) and
lead to their discrimination
- Who are the poor
14% of Canadian population not randomly distributed
highly concentrated in certain groups of ppl
women 2/3 of poor are women
1mil children in
persons with disabilities- close to half earn
Social Stratification
- social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based