SOC101Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Occupational Inequality, Visible Minority, Social Inequality
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Sociology Lecture #10 — November 18: Race and Ethnicity
Race and Ethnicity in Canada Today
-Canada is a diverse and complex society composed of racially and ethnically different groups
-Canada is widely renowned for its cultural democracy and harmonious ethnic diversity
-Signiﬁcant gains have been made in the past 50 years for ‘visible’ and ‘non-visible’ minority
groups in Canada
-However, racism is an important part of Canada’s history and part of its current circumstances
Clicker question: What did John Porter’s extensive analysis of ethnic groups in Canada
a) The vertical mosaic no longer exists
b) There is a signiﬁcant degree of ethnic stratiﬁcation in Canada
c) All ethnic groups are roughly equal in terms of the distribution of social resources
d) Although race can be a factor in social stratiﬁcation, ethnicity is not important
Multiculturalism or Vertical Mosaic
-Vertical mosaic: Canada’s ethnic groups are vertically arranged according to income, power,
-Stratiﬁcation is the organization of power, people are ranked with some power higher and
some people lower
-The idea of ethnic stratiﬁcation is the organization of people ranked by their ethnicities
-Do we still have ethnic stratiﬁcation like Porter described it in 1965?
-There is a key distinction between dissimilarity (occupational differentiation) and Where is
most of the water on Mars? inequality (stratiﬁcation)
-Dissimilarity: not being like someone else, people on the basis of gender, race, ethnicity, age,
etc. who occupy different kinds of occupations — different and equal
-Inequality — different and unequal
Between 1931 and 2006, a decline in the signiﬁcance of ethnicity occurred for both occupational
differentiation and stratiﬁcation.
Occupational differentiation: reduction of ethnic division of labour of 30% for men, and 45% for
women over 70 years
Occupational stratiﬁcation: reduction of 50% for men and 45% for women over 50 years
However, though ethnic origin plays a much small role in Canada present today, it still contuse
to affect occupational inequality.
Race: does it exist?
There have been biological arguments that racial categorization based on phenotypical
differences such as facial characteristics or skin colour do not correlated with genotypical
differences (difference in genetic makeup).
This leads geneticists to ﬁnd race to be “an inadequate and even harmful way to think about
human biologically differences.”
Social construction of Race
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