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Lecture 18

SOC101Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Developing Country, Edge City, Counterurbanization

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Christian O.Caron

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Lecture 18: Population & Urbanization
Wednesday, February 24, 2016
Demography: The Study of Population
Slow population growth in Canada, yet world-wide a significant
The world's population of 7.4 billion in 2016 increases by 8-
million each year
By 2050, there will be over 9 billion people
Virtually all of this growth will come in the lower-income nations
The population in many high-income nations will likely decrease
over this period
The subfield of sociology that examines population size,
composition, and distribution
Demography is important because the nature of population
affects all aspects of social life
Increases or decreases in population have a powerful impact on
the social, economic, and political structures of societies.
Demographers define population as a group of people who live
in a specified geographic area
Changes in populations occur as a result of three processes:
Population issues and urban growth: the demographic transition
For much of human history, population growth was fairly stable
given societies experienced consistently high birth rates and
death rates
Large families where common given the economic value of
children and high infant/childhood mortality rates
Human life span was much shorter than today
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