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soc101 keyterms lectures 1-5.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

SOC101 Y1 Key Concepts & Figures & Terms and Definitions Lecture 1 Introduction Glossary Terms Definitions Altruistic suicide Occurs in settings that exhibit high levels of social solidarity, results from norms very tightly governing behaviour Anomic suicide Occurs in settings that exhibit low levels of social solidarity, where norms governing behaviour are vaguely defined Dysfunctional consequences Effects of social structures that create social instability Egoistic suicide Results from a lack of integration of the individual into society because of weak social ties to others Ethnomethodology Study of how people make sense of what others do and say in terms of norms that exist independently of individual social actors Globalization Process by which formerly separated economies, states, and cultures are becoming tied together and people are becoming increasingly aware of their growing interdependence Global structures Patterns of social relations that lie outside and above the national level. Industrial Revolution Rapid economic transformation which began in Britain in 1780s, large0scale application of science and tech to industrial processes, creation of factories, formation of working class Latent functions Invisible and unintended effects of social structures Macrostructures Patterns of social relations that lie outside and above ones circle of intimates and acquaintances: classes, bureaucracies, power systems Microstructures Patterns of relatively intimate social relations formed during face-to-face interactions: families, friendship circles Postindustrial Revolution Technology-driven shift from manufacturing to service industries and the consequences of that shift for virtually all human activities th th Protestant ethic Protestant belief originating in 16 and 17 centuries that religious doubts can be reduced and a state of grace ensured, if people work diligently an live ascetically. (Weber: Protestant ethic had the unintended effect of increasing savings and investment, stimulating capitalist growth) Scientific Revolution Began about 1550, encouraged the view that sound conclusions about the workings of society must be based on solid evidence, not just speculation Social Solidarity The degree to which group members share beliefs and values, intensity and frequency of group interaction Social Structures Relatively stable patterns of social relationsSociological imagination Ability to see the connection between personal problems and social structures Sociology Systematic study of all human behaviour in social context Theory A tentative explanation of some aspects of social life that states how and why certain facts are related Values Ideas about what is right and wrong Theory Figure Definition Example Functionalism Durkheim -human behaviours governed by Suicide rates are influenced by Theory Talcott Parsons social structures patterns of social solidarity Robert Merton -social structures maintain or undermine social stability -social structures are based mainly on shared values -suggests re-establishing equilibrium to solve social problems Conflict Theory Karl Marx -on large, macrostructures Exploitation of poor workers by -major patterns of inequality factory owners will lead to produce social stability & social growth of trade unions and changes in diff. circumstances labour parties, eventually -members of privileged groups
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