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Robert Brym (148)

soc101 keyterms+stats summary lectures 6-10.docx

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Robert Brym

Lecture 6 Gender and Sexuality Terms Definitions Examples Compulsory The assumption that individuals should desire only heterosexuality members of the opposite sex Essentialists Observe male-female differences as natural and Brain studies universal. Sociobiology 4. Tend to generalize from the average, Freud-sexuality is the main human instinct, and ignoring variations within gender other rubbish. group 1. Ignores the historical and cultural 5. Exaggerate the degree to which variability of gender and sexuality gender differences are unchangeable 2. Ignores the fact that gender differences 6. Offer explanations for gender are declining rapidly/disappeared differences that ignore the role of 3. Research evidence is often flawed power Gender Encompasses the feelings, attitudes, and behaviours that are associated with being male or female as conventionally understood Gender identity Refers to identification with, or a sense of belonging to a particular sex, biologically, psychologically, and socially Gender roles Repertoire of behaviours that match widely shared expectations about how males and females are supposed to act Hostile Involves sexual jokes, comments, and touching environment that interfere with work or create an unfriendly sexual work settings harassment Quid pro quo Sexual threats or bribery used to extract sexual sexual favours as a condition of employment decisions harassment Sex Being born with distinct male or female genitalia and genetic program that releases either male or female hormones to stimulate the development of ones reproductive system Sexual The way a person derives sexual pleasure, orientation including whether desirable partners are of the same or different sex Sexual Assesses sexual acts only by their meaning for the pluralism participants Sexual scripts Assumptions that guide sexual behaviour by telling us whom we should find attractive, when and where it is appropriate to be aroused, what is sexually permissible, and so on Sexuality Involves actions that are intended to produce erotic arousal and genital response Social Main alternative to essentialism, argues that 1. Long-distance warfare and conquest constructionism gender differences are not biologically 2. Plow agriculture predetermined, but are products of social 3. Separation of public and private structure and culture spheres Sociobiology Variant of essentialism, holds that all human Gives rise to masculine and feminine beings instinctually want to ensure that their genes patterns of behaviour that presumablyget passed on to future generations. However, the became genetically encoded because of their different reproductive status of men and women adaptive value means that they have to develop different E.O.Wilson adaptive strategies David Buss Transgendered Gender identity does not match the sex assigned at birth, blur widely accepted gender roles by, for example, cross dressing Transsexuals Identify with the opposite sex from that assigned to them at birth, causing them to change their appearance or resort to a sex-change operation Statistics & data: 1 in every 5k-10k Canadians is transgendered 1 in 30k Canadians is fully transsexual Homosexuality was considered a serious psychiatric disorder until 1974 In 1975, 32% Canadians disapproved of premarital sex, figure is expected to fall to half by 2010 45% of 15-19 years olds had sex at least once, 75% of university age Greeks had most frequent sexual activity, Japanese least&least satisfied 60% of Canadians approve of homosexuality by 2005 49% of Canadians had unprotected sex without knowing their partners sexual history in 2005 89% North American women want to lose weight (1997) 60% of high school boys approve of forcing sexual activities on a girl (1993) Boys forced girls to engage in sexual activities with them: 1.5% elementary
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