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soc101 keyterms&definitions 16-20.docx

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Robert Brym

Lecture 16 Politics and Social Movements Terms Definitions Authorities People who occupy the command posts of legitimized power structures Authority Power that is widely viewed as legitimate Civil citizenship Recognizes the right to free speech, freedom of religion, and justice before the law Civil society Private (non-state) sphere of social life Elite theory Maintains that well-to-do people consistently have more political influence than people who are less well-to-do and that society is therefore not as democratic as it is often portrayed Force Coercive power Frame alignment Process by which individual interests, beliefs, and values either become congruent and complementary with the activities, goals, and ideology of a social movement or fail to do so New social Post-1950s movements that attract a disproportionately large number of highly educated movements people in the social, educational, and cultural fields and universalize the struggle for citizenship Pluralist theory Holds that society has many competing interests and centres of power and that no one interest or power centre predominates in the long run Political citizenship Recognizes the right to run for office and vote Political parties Organizations that seek to control state power Political revolution Concerted attempt on the part of many people to overthrow existing political institutions and establish new ones. Political revolutions take place when widespread and successful movements of opposition clash with crumbling traditional or legal-rational authority Power Ability of an individual or a group to impose its will on others, even if they resist Power-balance Suggests that social movement formation and success depend on how powerful authorities theory are compared with partisans of change. It also holds that societies with widely distributed power are more democratic and more egalitarian than societies with narrowly held power Relative deprivation Intolerable gap between the social rewards people feel they deserve and the social rewards they expect to receive Resource Social movements crystallize and succeed in achieving their goals to the degree that they mobilization theory have access to scarce resources, such as money and effective communication facilities Ruling class Self-conscious and cohesive group of people, led by corporate executives and owners of big business, who act to advance their common interests Social citizenship Recognizes the right to a certain level of economic security and full participation in social life Social movements Enduring collective attempts to change part or all of the social order by means of rioting, petitioning, striking, demonstrating, and establishing pressure groups, unions, and political parties State Set of institutions that formulate and implement a country’s laws, policies, and binding regulations. It consists of an executive branch (which initiates laws), a legislative branch (which makes laws), a judicial branch (which interprets laws), and an administrative and coercive apparatus (which enforces laws and protects state security) State-centred theory Shows how the state structures political life independently of the way power is distributed among classes and other groups at a given time Universal citizenship Recognizes the right of marginal groups and the rights of humanity as a whole to full citizenship Lecture 18 Globalization Terms Definitions Consumerism Way of life devoted primarily to the purchase and acquisition of commodities. While traditionally thought of as a problem for North America and Europe, consumerism is increasingly recognized as a cultural and ecological issue among affluent populations in the less developed countries. Cultural imperialism Controversial theory of cultural domination according to which powerful economic and political actors (primarily Euro-American) are thought to impose their values, norms, and lifestyles on other population. Cultural imperialism often refers to the export of certain Euro-American cultural practices, such as materialism, consumerism, and sexual liberalism through the media of television, music, and film. Democratic deficit Disenfranchisement of ordinary citizens from the decisions and process of governments. Democratic deficits are often attributed to the influence of corporate actors and international financial institutions on governments and the transfer of governance to institutions like the IMF and WTO, which do not permit average citizens to vote or influence decisions. Digital divide Gap between people who are easily able to access communication technologies like the internet and cellular phones, and people who lack the material resources, education, or infrastructure to access these technologies. Export processing Manufacturing areas in which government programs provide special incentives to help zones (EPZs) promote export-oriented manufacturing. Sometimes EPZs are actual territorial zones demarcated by fences and borders, while in other cases they indicate programs that apply to all industries within a nation. For instance in 1991, Sri Lanka declared the entire nation and EPZ. Forth world Comprises marginalized populations and regions that are not competitive in the global economy Global commodity Worldwide network of labour and production processes, the end result of which is a finished chain commodity Globalization Social, economic, and political process that facilitates the movement of people, goods, ideas, and capital around the globe. With globalization processes, the world appears to shrink, although the ability to cross borders varies tremendously depending on your position in the global economy Globalization from Short-hand way of describing a diverse range of projects seeking greater democracy, below equality, and sustainability in globalization processes. These projects are generally opposed to neoliberal policies and U.S. hegemony in the global system and are also referred to as alternative globalization, the global social justice movement, and anti-globalization Neoliberalism Refers to economic policies that became prominent from the late1970s onward in both developed and developing countries. Neoliberalism draws from the classical free market economic theory of Adam Smith but is considered new because it followed a historical period of vigorous state economic regulation known as Keynesianism (1930s-70s). Neoliberalism is associated with a retreat from state intervention and regulation, greater focus on individual responsibility, less protection for labour and the environment, privatization of state resources, and faith in the power of the market and the profit motive to provide the greatest food for the greatest number Outsourcing Occurs when firms contract production and services to smaller, independent firms. When outsourcing occurs on a global level, multinational corporations contract production and services to firms in less developed countries Time-space Refers to the diminished importance of geography and time lags because of globalization, compression especially since the late 1970s Top-down Refers to the extension of capitalism globally, particularly as a result of the neoliberal globalization policies and programs authorized by international financial authorities, such as the IMF and World Bank, and implemented by national governments. Top-down globalization is organized by elites in governments, corporations, and international institutions with little
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